Ch. 5

1. An erosional surface that separates strata that are parallel with one another is called a(n)

A.  angular unconformity

B.   disconformity

C.  nonconformity

D.  bedding plane

 

2. An erosional surface that separates tilted strata below from flat lying strata above is called a(n)

A.  angular unconformity

B.   disconformity

C.  nonconformity

D.  bedding plane

 

3. An erosional surface that separates older metamorphic or igneous rocks from younger overlying sedimentary rocks is called a(n)

A.  angular unconformity

B.   disconformity

C.  nonconformity

D.  bedding plane

 

4. What is the correct order of sedimentary facies, from shoreline toward open water?

A.  shale, mud, and sand

B.   limestone, sand and conglomerate

C.  limestone, shale, and mud

D.  sandstone, shale, and limestone

 

5. The term facies in sedimentary rocks refers to the

A.  lateral changes resulting from deposition in different depositional environments that had existed simultaneously

B.   vertical variation resulting from deposition in the same environment separated by significant time intervals

C.  lateral variation resulting from deposition in the same environment separated by significant time intervals.

D.  laterally homogeneous strata deposited over a long time interval in the same environment

 

6. Sedimentary facies are a result of

A.  similar depositional processes operating in adjacent environments

B.   similar depositional processes operating in geographically separate environments

C.  different depositional processes operating in geographically separate environments

D.  different depositional processes operating in adjacent environments

 

7. Which of the following is a cause of marine transgressions?

A.  continental uplift

B.   lowering of sea level with respect to a continent

C.  rapid sea floor spreading

D.  formation of large glaciers.

 

8. Which of the following is a trace fossil?

A.  mammal tooth

B.   frozen mammoth

C.  ripple mark

D.  dinosaur footprint

 

9. A clam shell is buried in the sand, then dissolved leaving a cavity. The cavity fills with mineral matter.  The object produced is a(n)

A.  burrow

B.   mold

C.  cast

D.  carbon film

 

10. Of the following, which was not used by 19th century geologists for developing the geologic column?

A.  fossil succession

B.   radiometric age dating

C.  superposition

D.  rock types and composition

 

11. The process used to demonstrate that rock strata are equivalent is called

A.  equivalency

B.   interpolation

C.  extrapolation

D.  correlation

 

12. Radiometric dating of detrital  minerals (particles) in sedimentary rocks gives

A.  the exact age of the sedimentary rock

B.   an age older than the sedimentary rock

C.  an age younger than the sedimentary rock

D.  the age of lithification of the sedimentary rock

 

13. You date an igneous rock that cuts across a sedimentary layer. What can you determine about the age of the sedimentary rock?

A.  a minimum age

B.   a maximum age

C.  no age inference can be made at all

D.  an exact age

E.   an age range

 

14.  In the field, a geologist notices igneous rock below parallel sedimentary layers. The

      igneous rock has pieces of limestone from the first sedimentary layer contained within it.  What can be said about the age of the limestone?

A.     The limestone was deposited simultaneous as the emplacement of the igneous rock.

B.     The limestone is older than the igneous rock

C.     The limestone is younger than the igneous rock

D.     The limestone can only be dated through its included fossils

 

 

15. Which is not true in the following diagram?

         A.  This represents a rise in sea level.

         B.   The sandstone at point A is younger than at point B.

         C.   The limestone at point C is the same age as the shale at point D.

         D.   The principle of superposition can be applied to these layers.

 

D

 

C

 

B

 

A

 

16.  According to Walther’s Law, which of the following is true?

      A.  Figure A represents a marine regression and Figure B represents a marine transgression

       B.  Figure A represents a marine transgression and Figure B represents a marine regression     

      C.  Both figure A and B represent marine transgressions

      D.  The horizontal lithology is required to determine what the layers mean.

 

 

 

 

 

 


         

 

                  Fig. A                                          Fig. B