CHAPTER 1

THE SCIENCE OF MARINE BIOLOGY

Chapter Outline

The Science of Marine Biology

The History of Marine Biology (Aristotle, Cook, Darwin, Forbes)

The Challenger Expedition

The Ocean

The Growth of Marine Labs (MBL, Woods Hole, Scripps, Cousteau & SCUBA)

Marine Biology Today (Alvin, Aquarius)

How to Study Science (good for lab!)

 

Box Readings: John Steinbeck and Ed Ricketts

Chapter Summary

Chapter 1 introduces the scope and nature of marine biology and its relevance in the modern world. The first half of the chapter describes the science of marine biology by sketching its history and by describing the many roles marine biology plays in modern science and technology. We highlight the fact that the study of life in the oceans now involves specialists from many disciplines as well as a wide range of tools and techniques.

 

You should also know the SCIENTIFIC METHOD (observation, hypothesis, testing (methods, results) & theory)

 

CHAPTER 3

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES
OF SEAWATER AND THE WORLD OCEAN

Chapter Outline

The Waters of the Ocean

The Unique Nature of Pure Water

The Three States of Water

Heat and Water

Water as a Solvent (universal solvent)

Seawater

Salt Composition (salt = sodium chloride = solute)

Salinity (definition, how is it measured? In what units?), Temperature, and Density

Transparency

Pressure (depth, atmosphere)

 

Chapter Summary

Chapter 3 outlines the basic chemical and physical characteristics of the ocean, stressing their relevance to the distribution of life in the marine environment.

The basic chemical and physical characteristics of water are first discussed, followed by those of seawater. Photographs and illustrations that point out how marine scientists measure various chemical and physical parameters sustain student interest.

 

CHAPTER 4

some basics OF BIOLOGY

Chapter Outline

Challenges of Life in the Sea

Salinity

Diffusion and Osmosis (hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic; osmoregulation)

Regulation of Salt and Water Balance (think fish & turtle examples)

Temperature

Classifying Living Things

                Binomial nomenclature (Scientific Classification, see Ch. 10 notes later)

Eukaryotes (vs. Prokaryotes – Bacteria & Archaea)

Kingdom Animalia

                Invertebrates

                Vertebrates (including Chordates)

Kingdom Plantae

                Seagrasses, Mangroves, Beach Grass, Salt Marshes

Kingdom Protista

                Unicellular and multicellular algae (5 Divisions/Phyla) & Protozoans

Kingdom Fungi (marine fungus)

 

Marine Zones:

                Pelagic (Epi/Meso/Bathy/Abyssal)

                Benthic (Epi/Meso/Bathy/Abyssal/Hadal)

                Planktonic and Nektonic

                Abysall

                Intertidal and Subtidal

                Neritic and Oceanic

                Photic and Aphotic

 

(note: some sections of Ch. 15, detailed later, are mingled within these preceding sections too)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 10

AN INTRODUCTION TO MARINE ECOLOGY

(& Fig. 10.11+10.12)

Chapter Outline

 

Trophic Structure

Primary producers (autotrophs)

Primary/Secondary (etc.) consumers (heterotrophs)

Plankton: phytoplankton, zooplankton (meroplankton vs. holoplankton)

Nekton

Food web/chain/pyramid

 

Note: There are A LOT of food webs, through out text, that we will also use in this section (and pages/chapters are included in later sections but will also be covered here; Chapters included = 11-14)

 

Additional: Classification Levels

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus (Cap. and italics)

Species (lower-case and italics)

 

CHAPTER 5

the microbial worlD

Chapter Outline: (& table 5.2) 

Prokaryotes

(Domain) Bacteria (& some have moved to Archaea, Extremophiles)

Marine Bacteria

Cyanobacteria

Primary production

 

Eukaryotes

                (Domain) Eukarya

                (Kingdom) Protista     

Unicellular Algae (“Phytoplankton”)

Diatoms (Division: Chrysophyta)

Dinoflagellates (Division: Dinophyta)

Other Unicellular Algae (some Protozoans)

Primary production

Protozoans: The Animal-like Protists (know which are phytoplankton & which are not!)

Foraminiferans

Coccoliths

Flagellates

Radiolarians

Ciliates

            Primary and Secondary production

Fungi: Marine Fungi

                (Domain) Eukarya

                (Kingdom) Fungi

                Most are unicellular, yeast-like, with a cell wall of chiton

                Do not photosynthesize – heterotrophy/decomposer

 

 

CHAPTER 6

MULTICELLULAR PRIMARY PRODUCERS:

SEAWEEDS and PLANTS

 

Chapter Outline

Eukaryotic Organisms

(Domain) Eukarya

Kingdom: Protista (for seaweeds)

Primary production

 

Multicellular Algae: The Seaweeds

General Structure

Holdfast

Blade

Stipe

Pneumatocyst

 

Types of Seaweeds

Green Algae (chlorophyta)

Brown Algae (phaeophyta)

Red Algae (rhodophyta)

                Eating “seaweed” – caraggenan, alginate, agar

 

(Kingdom) Plantae (for plants), Phylum Anthophyta

Multicellular: Flowering Plants

Seagrasses

        Eelgrass, SAV beds

Salt-Marsh Plants (Spartina spp.)

Mangroves

“Beach Grass”

 

Chapter Summary

Chapter 6 surveys the multicellular marine primary producers, that is, the seaweeds and plants. Though these organisms are placed in two separate kingdoms by most biologists, we have grouped them in a single chapter for the sake of simplicity and convenience.

 

 

CHAPTER 15

LIFE NEAR THE SURFACE

Chapter Outline

The Organisms of the Epipelagic

Primary Production

The Plankton: A New Understanding

The Phytoplankton

        Diatoms

        Dinoflagellates

The Zooplankton

Protozoan Zooplankton

Copepods

The Nekton

Chapter Summary

Chapter 15 deals with the surface layer, or epipelagic zone, of the marine environment, a most important and extensive portion of our planet.  The chapter opens with a description of the most important groups of epipelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, and nekton. It also includes a helpful table that summarizes the classification of plankton.

 

Chapter 15: Plankton

 

The Organisms of the Epipelagic

The Plankton: A New Understanding

The Phytoplankton

The Zooplankton

Protozoan Zooplankton

Copepods

Other crustaceans

Non-Crustacean Zooplankton

Meroplankton vs. holoplankton

The Nekton

Living in the Epipelagic

Vertical Migration

Epipelagic Food Webs

Trophic Levels and Energy Flow

Chapter Summary

Chapter 15 deals with the surface layer, or epipelagic zone, of the marine environment, a most important and extensive portion of our planet. The chapter opens with a description of the most important groups of epipelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, and nekton. It also includes a helpful table that summarizes the classification of plankton. Basic morphological characteristics and feeding habits are stressed. The second section deals with the crucial adaptations of epipelagic organisms. We discuss adaptations for staying afloat within the epipelagic and those adaptations involved in finding food and escaping from predators. Adaptations for fast swimming in epipelagic fishes are highlighted in a box reading.

Food webs in the epipelagic are discussed in the concluding section. We examine the basic patterns of trophic structure and the role of detritus, bacteria, and dissolved organic matter. Primary production and its limiting factors (light, nutrients, seasonal patterns, and upwelling) are then discussed in some detail.