Computers, Information Technology, the Internet, Ethics, Society and Human Values
Philip Pecorino, Ph.D.
Queensborough Community College, CUNY
Chapter 13 Artificial Intelligence and Being Human
Artificial Intelligence: A Light Approach references by Luciano Floridi sections on
Minds and Machines Major Resource site by Peter Suber
What is Artificial Intelligence? An essay by John McCarthy, a founder of the field.
Cognitive Science, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Chess Is Too Easy. An essay by Selmer Bringsjord.
Computing, Machinery, and Intelligence. Alan Turing's classic essay.
Turing Test: 50 Years Later by Ayse Pinar Saygin, Ilyas
Cicekli, Varol Akman in
Conscious Machines. An essay by Marvin Minsky.
Minds, Machines, and Gödel. An essay by J.R. Lucas.
Philosophy and Cognitive Science. An essay by Serge Sharoff.
Technological Singularity. An essay by Vernor Vinge. Ignore the preface by John Klett.
Thinking Computers and Virtual Persons. A new anthology of essays on AI (and against Searle's Chinese Room argument), edited by Eric Dietrich. The site contains a table of contents and abstracts of the essays.
Net Future Articles on AI
Watch video (recommended) or read transcript of the listed presentations from 2000 conference, Will Spiritual Robots Replace Humanity by 2100? http://technetcast.ddj.com/tnc_program.html?program_id=82
01. Douglas Hofstadter Professor of Cognitive Science at Indiana, Author, Gödel, Escher, Bach
02. Ray Kurzweil Author, The Age of Spiritual Machines.
03. Bill Joy Co-Founder, Chief Scientist, Sun Microsystems
Hans Moravec (from 7:01 to end)
of mobile robot research, Author,
Robot: Mere Machine to
06. Kevin Kelly Editor-At-Large, Wired, Author, Out of Control, a study of bio-technological hybrids.
07. Frank Drake Chairman of the Board of Trustees, SETI Institute
08. Ralph Merkle Principal Fellow, Zyvex, LLC, Recipient, 1998 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology for Theoretical Work
09. John Koza Consulting Professor (Medical Informatics), Stanford University. Inventor of genetic programming.
10. Panel Discussion
11. Audience Q&A
Online papers on consciousness
The Singularity Vernor Vinge, "Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended."
The Law of Accelerating Returns Raymond Kurzweil,
"What Are We Thinking About?" Shirley Turkle: (2000)
Why the future doesn't need us. Bill Joy, Wired 8.04, April 2000
Assimilation of the Machine Mumford(1934)
Posthumanization and Cyberspace
There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom (1959) Richard Feynman,
Sense of Self and Cyber space and AI
Cyberspace and the world we live in.in Body and Society -
Cybersociety: computer-mediated communication and community.
Computers and the Communication of Gender by Elizabeth Lane Lawley
Technologies of the Self by Alan Aycock
Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community by Judith Donath
Identity and the Cyborg Body Chapter Three of Elizabeth Reid's thesis Cultural Formations in Text-Based Virtual Realities
Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality, 1984-1992 Colonizing Virtual Reality -
Will the Real Body Please Stand Up? by Rosanne Stone
If you are interested in Science and Computers and Artificial Intelligence you might want to "get into" this subject by examining the material at this site listed below:
Science Fiction Setting the Scene:
Cyberspace and Neuroscience
Cyberspace and Philosophy
Bridging the Gap between Philosophy and Neuroscience
Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong-AI
Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence by Nick Bostrom
ABSTRACT The ethical issues related to the possible future creation of machines with general intellectual capabilities far outstripping those of humans are quite distinct from any ethical problems arising in current automation and information systems. Such superintelligence would not be just another technological development; it would be the most important invention ever made, and would lead to explosive progress in all scientific and technological fields, as the superintelligence would conduct research with superhuman efficiency. To the extent that ethics is a cognitive pursuit, a superintelligence could also easily surpass humans in the quality of its moral thinking. However, it would be up to the designers of the superintelligence to specify its original motivations. Since the superintelligence may become unstoppably powerful because of its intellectual superiority and the technologies it could develop, it is crucial that it be provided with human-friendly motivations. This paper surveys some of the unique ethical issues in creating superintelligence, and discusses what motivations we ought to give a superintelligence, and introduces some cost-benefit considerations relating to whether the development of superintelligent machines ought to be accelerated or retarded.
Ethical & Social Implications As computers are programmed to act more like people, several social and ethical concerns come into focus. For example: Are there ethical bounds on what computers should be programmed to do? Sources listed here focus on AI, but also included are works that range more broadly into the general impact of computerization.
Medical use of AI systems
AI and Legal systems
AI and Theology
Societies and Organizations
OFAI Library Information System Biblio, searchable database containing data on books, research papers, conference papers, journal articles from many sub areas of Artificial Intelligence.
Founded in 1979, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is a nonprofit scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions.
Major AAAI activities include organizing and sponsoring conferences, symposia, and workshops, publishing a quarterly magazine for all members, publishing books, proceedings, and reports, and awarding grants, scholarships, and other honors.
The following authors on Mind Brain and Consciousness have homepages:
Paul Churchland http://philosophy.ucsd.edu/faculty/pmc.html
Daniel Dennett http://www.tufts.edu/~ddennett/
John Searle http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~jsearle/
A.M. Turing http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/
Web Surfer's Caveat: These are class notes, intended to comment on readings and amplify class discussion. They should be read as such. They are not intended for publication or general distribution. firstname.lastname@example.org @copyright 2006 Philip A. Pecorino
Last updated 8-2006 Return to Table of Contents