Chapter 13 :Reproduction: Assistance and Control Issues
|Section 3. Presentation of Issues.|
for Chapter 9 :
Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND
REFLECTION . 6th
ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2000.
Cloning: Genetic Duplicates
Not Safe and Not Right???
VIDEOS: Human cloninghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cjq5asEYjts
Test Tube Baby: external fertilization and implantation
Multiple pregnancies: Fertility drugs - risk of abnormalities and deaths
selective reduction: Therapy or evil?
Postmenopausal Motherhood: Sex bias or physical threats to woman and child
New Data: Older Fathers-sperm is now linked to defects in children, including shizophrenia
Embryos in Court: Who owns embryos? Does sperm source/egg source have a right not to be a father/mother?
Father shopping: Sperm by Mail - catalogue of sperm source- shipment by mail
Mother Shopping: Eggs by Internet - website with photos of egg source- shipment by mail
Surrogate Pregnancy: Buying and selling a baby?
Gestational Surrogate Changes her Mind: Whose baby is it?
IVF, GIFT, ZIFT and other techniques
IVF: in vitro fertilization
GIFT: gamete intrafallopian transfer
ZIFT: zygote intrafallopian transfer
ULER: uterine lavage embryo retrieval
PZD: partial zonal dissection
ICSI: intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Need : 10% of US women are infertile, 4 million men are infertile
Success rates: 24% of women treated get pregnant, 78% result in live births
Costs:$10,000-$100,000, over $2 billion each year in USA
Multiple Births: risk of miscarriage, defective children
Freezing Embryos: > 25,000 / year are frozen in the US
Gestational Surrogates and Donor Ova: postmenopausal mothers! Surrogates for convenience! Genetically superior women using genetically inferior surrogates!
Criticisms of Assisted Reproduction:
lack of effectiveness
poor serving the wealthy as egg donors and surrogates
Benefits of IVF and other forms of Assisted Reproduction:
increases possibility of having a child
danger to fetus
weakening of the family
genetic copies- twins, triplets, etc........
"spare" child in waiting
AI: Artificial Insemination
Sperm/ Egg Donation
Does a woman have a "right" to AI?
Does a woman have a "right" to select the type of sperm donor?
Should donors be recorded to avoid insemination by kin?
Rich using the less fortunate?
Outline by Don Berkich, University of Texas, Corpus Christi (by permission)
The Standard Argument and the Argument from Potentiality
Singer's strategy is to reinterpret premise (1) so as to show the argument invalid.
Why is killing a human being usually considered morally worse than killing other living beings? Because human beings have superior mental powers.
If we reinterpret Premise (1) so as to restrict 'human being' to those members of homo sapiens with superior mental powers, then the Standard Argument commits the Fallacy of Equivocation.
But should members of homo sapiens be protected just because they are members?
What justification can be given for premise (1)?
It might be objected to the two-petri dish thought experiment that the difference between the two dishes lies in the genetic uniqueness of the fertilized egg as opposed to the non-uniqueness of the unfertilized egg.
But the uniqueness argument can be met with a refinement of the two-petri dish thought experiment.
The minimal characteristic needed to give an embryo a claim to moral consideration is it's capacity to feel pleasure or pain.
But then it follows that other beings which feel pleasure or pain ought to be included in moral consideration.
Implications of this principle for reproductive research/technology.
ETHICAL THEORIES and REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL:
Natural Law Theory;
All techniques of assistance for married heterosexual couples is in keeping with the reproductive drive and natural law.
Utilitarian Theory: An act utilitarian might approve of al such means to provide for happiness. A rule utilitarian might oppose those techniques which when used as a rule would over time produce less welfare for members of society.
Kantian Theory: Would approve in general the practice of promoting births but would be opposed to any practices which violate the categorical imperative: any procedure that treats a person as a means and not as an end in him/herself.
Rawls Theory: Would favor the use of technologies that promote the liberties of those involved and would not disadvantage the least well off. the least well off must be advantaged in some way by the use of the technologies.
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© Copyright Philip A. Pecorino 2002. All Rights reserved.
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