MEDICAL ETHICS  Written Assignments 

OBSERVE THE DUE DATES!!   Check Calendar on due dates: 

Click on the module title below for the assignment for that module.

INSTRUCTIONS for PREPARING and SUBMITTING WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

MODULE  0 ORIENTATION

MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

MODULE 2 ETHICS

MODULE 3 THE MORAL CLIMATE OF HEALTH CARE

MODULE 4 PROFESSIONALISM ELITISM AND HEALTH CARE

MODULE 5 ETHICS AND NURSING

MODULE 6 RIGHTS TRUTH AND CONSENT

MODULE 7 HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

MODULE 8 ABORTION

MODULE : MID COURSE EVALUATIONS AND CHANGES

MODULE 9 SEVERELY IMPAIRED NEWBORNS, FUTILITY AND INFANTICIDE

MODULE 10 CARE OF THE DYING

MODULE 11  DELIBERATE TERMINATION OF LIFE AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE

MODULE 12 REPRODUCTION , ASSISTANCE AND CONTROL

MODULE 13 ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES: SCARCITY AND TRIAGE

MODULE 14 A CLAIM OF A RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE

MODULE : CULMINATING ACTIVITY: BONUS EXERCISE

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING AND SUBMITTING : CASE STUDIES

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MODULE  0 ORIENTATION
ASSIGNMENTS: ORIENTATION WEEK

OK, let's get started by having you explore the course site and learn about the requirements and what we will be doing here.  For this first module or learning unit  you are expected to do the following

1. Read all the documents that are part of COURSE OUTLINE using the link COURSE OUTLINE  Be sure to read How you will be evaluated!   There are a lot of items in the COURSE OUTLINE be sure to read ALL OF THEM.
2.  Check and Print out the CALENDAR - under COURSE OUTLINE or CALENDAR  or SCHEDULE ! 

3. ENTER the class site and Introduce yourself to your classmates under the DISCUSSION BOARD  INTRODUCTIONS
HOW? Go to the button marked DISCUSSION BOARD or  marked COMMUNICATION and then click on DISCUSSION BOARD. Click on it an enter the DB.  Click on INTRODUCTIONS.  This is an area for you to introduce yourself to the class and where you can go to meet the others that are in this course.  Post an item to start a discussion, or read other students' responses if there are any, and make a response.  

4. COPY and PASTE PRACTICE. Create a question or answer in a word processor and copy and paste it into the DISCUSSION BOARD under ASK THE PROFESSOR   HOW? Go to the button marked DISCUSSION BOARD or  marked COMMUNICATION and then click on DISCUSSION BOARD. Select an item under ASK the PROFESSOR to which you wish to reply. Then minimize the internet browser (IE) and open the word processor WORD or some other that you use. Keyboard your response or question for the discussion. Copy and paste all the material there into the space for discussion concerning the first discussion item that you selected and then submit it.

REMEMBER to SPELL CHECK FIRST!!

5. Email  PRACTICE

Prepare a word processed document with the answers to the three (3) questions below and then send it to the Professor through Email   You must use my CUNY email address !!!!!!

1. What is Written Assignment Number Five(5) for Module Five? Copy and paste it into the document.

2. When is written assignment Seven(7) due?

3. What must you do to get the maximum number of points for the discussions in each of the 14 modules?

HOW?   After answering all three, save your file (document) as a WORD or a  DOC or TXT file.
Then send the EMAIL  ppecorino@qcc.cuny.edu   Do not send attachments!!!   Copy and paste your text from the word processor directly into the message window of the email. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EMAIL

You must use a respectable email address and keep watch over it to insure your mailbox does not fill up.  Be sure to double delete items.

If you do not have an address acceptable to this instructor you will have 10 days to get and use the college supplied email address and notify the instructor from the new address.

When sending email ALWAYS In the subject line put: first name , last name, PHL 211 ASSIGNMENT# or QUESTION or HELP

After an assignment has been received, it will be graded and the feedback shared with you either by E-mail or by the use of an on-line grade book WebPages found by clicking on GRADES..

6. READ the Student Reviews and Comments about this class.

7. ENTER the  class site and go to the STUDENT CAF…  in the DISCUSSION BOARD area of the  Course Site. 

This is a discussion area for our class outside the context of a particular course module. Just as you have the opportunity to talk or chat with each other or with the instructor when taking a conventional classroom course, you should also have the opportunity to do the same in a web course. The STUDENT CAF… is available only to students enrolled in this class to post and/or read messages and respond. These can include questions or comments to other students about course material, assignments, readings, etc. It is also a place where you can go to socialize and have open discussion on subjects of your interests.

You will find the STUDENT CAFE in the DISCUSSION BOARD section of the Course. `
.  

8. For ALL Students>>RELAX It looks like it is a lot but it is no more than any other class only just made more accessible and convenient and more is explained in text at the start.

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Written Assignment for MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

Please answer each of the questions below.

1. Why is it necessary for anyone to care about ethics?

2. Of what value would knowledge of the principles of ethics be to people confronted with moral problems or dilemmas?

3. How is a person any better off knowing about Biomedical Ethics when confronting moral problems ?

4. Why do you think that you have anything to gain beyond the credits for taking this course and coming to understand the issues and principles related to Ethics and Biomedical Ethics in particular?

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 2 ETHICS

1. Reading Comprehension

A. Relativism

B. Ethical Traditions  For EACH of the following 5 theories :

   

consequential

non-consequential

A)  Ethical Egoism C)  Natural Law Theory
B)  Rule Utility D)  Kant
  E)  Rawls

2. Critical Thinking

What makes any act morally good?  Since no human action is seen encountered by the sense as having a label as to its moral status what is the source or how is it that actions are thought to be morally good or immoral?

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 3 THE MORAL CLIMATE OF HEALTH CARE

1. Reading Comprehension

In this module there has been discussion of values and conflicts in values. Institutional values and individual values have been presented.  What are those Institutional values and individual values and how do they clash?

2. Critical Thinking

In health care, medicine and medical research there often occurs a clash in values. These conflicts exist amongst the providers and between the providers and the recipients of care. Provide an example of one such conflict.

1. Describe the situation or case

2. state what the conflict is

3. state what the Institutional values and individual values  are that are in conflict

If you choose to use a personal case please do not use names or identify yourself. Put in in the third person and use pseudonyms.

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 4 PROFESSIONALISM ELITISM AND HEALTH CARE

1. Reading Comprehension

A. What are the professional codes of physicians or medical societies based upon? Are they ethical codes? If not, what are they? If so, how are they ethical? What purpose (s) do such ethical codes serve?

B. Describe the following models for the doctor-patient or scientist-subject relationship and discuss any problematic characteristics of each.

1. Code

2.Contract

3. Covenant and Consent as a Canon of Loyalty

2. Critical Thinking

What are the desirable and undesirable characteristics of each, if any, and why do you think so? Include the ideas of philanthropy, proficiency, loyalty and responsive obligation in your answer.

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 5 ETHICS AND NURSING

1. Reading Comprehension

A. What are the nurse's duties and responsibilities toward recipients of their care? < It is quite a list!!

B. Discuss the nurse-physician conflict where ethical duties and rights are concerned. < They have different roles and operate out of different models!!!

C. How can nurses serve as advocates for the recipients of their care? What does that advocacy involve?

2. Critical Thinking

D. Explain the notion of collective responsibility and the conditions under which it comes into being and how it might apply to nurses. After doing that you may offer an example of a case.

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 6 RIGHTS TRUTH AND CONSENT

1. Reading Comprehension

A. Do people have the ethical right to Informed Consent?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

Why? What are the difficulties with it? What limitations might exist?

B. Do people have the right to know their diagnosis and prognosis as well as anything else connected with their condition, their treatment and its consequences?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

C. Is it the right of people receiving health care to have the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth from their physicians insofar as their diagnosis, prognosis and treatment is concerned? If so, what is it based upon?  What ethical principle supports this "right"? Explain how the principle supports the "right" as a "good" thing.  If not, why not?

2. Critical Thinking

B. What are the limits on the autonomy of a person and then of a person reduced to the role of a  "patient"?

C. Under what circumstances can confidentiality be breached? Provide an ethical justification (principle+reasoning) for your position.

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 7 HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 . Page 547 Decision Scenario #6

"You realize," Dr. Thorne said, "that you may not be in the group that receives medication. You may be in the placebo group for at least part of the time."

"Right," Ms. Ross said. "Youíre just going to give me some medicine."

"And do you understand the aims of the research?"

"You wan tot help me get better," Ms. Ross suggested hesitantly.

"We hope you get better, of course. But thatís not what weíre trying to accomplish here. Weíre trying to find out if this medication will help other people in your condition if we can treat them earlier than we were able to treat you."

"You want to help people," Ms. Ross said.

"Thatís right. But you do understand that we may not be helping you in this experiment?"

"Not exactly. I mean, we arenít going to try to harm you. But we arenít necessarily going to be giving you the preferred treatment for your complaint either. Do you know the difference between research and therapy?"

"Research is when youíre trying to find something out. Youíre searching around."

"Thatís right. And weíre asking you to be part of a research effort. As I told you, there are some risks. Besides the possibility of not getting treatment that you need, the drug may produce limited hepatic portal damage. Weíre not sure how much."

"I think I understand," Ms. Ross said.

"Iím sure you do,: said Dr. Thorne. "I understand that you are freely volunteering to participate in this research."

"Yes, sir. Mrs. Woolend, she told me if I volunteered Iíd get a letter put in my file and I could get early release."

"Mrs. Woolend told you that the review board would take your volunteering into account when they consider whether you should be put on work-release."

"Yes, sir. And Iím awfully anxious to get out of here. Iíve got two children stay with my aunt, and I need to get out of this place as quick as I can."

"I understand. We canít promise you release, of course. But your participation will look good on your record. Now I have some papers here I want you to sign."

 Critical Thinking

State what the ethical problems are in this case.  There are several.  State at least three of them.

If you have the Munson text Intervention and Reflection then answer>>>What the ethical position (ethical principle used by) of Hellman and Hellman would be and why you think so.  Summarize their thinking-use quotes.

Hellman and Hellman are Samuel Hellman and Deborah H. Hellman authors of "Of Mice but not Men: Problems of the randomized Clinical Trial" New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 324 no 22 (1991) pp 1585-1589 in Munson 7th ed pp 62-66.  8th edition pp. 61-64.

If you do NOT have the Munson text Intervention and Reflection  you can access it here:

Http://crystal.lib.buffalo.edu/libraries/reserve/course/phi337/hellman.pdf

If you still cannot access it then you can read the alternate article by Hans Jonas and then answer>>>

What would Hans Jonas make of this case?  Would he think it was being handled in a manner that was morally correct or not? Summarize his thinking-use quotes.

READ  Title: Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects

Author: Hans Jonas   Publication Information:  This essay is included, on pp.105-131, in a 1980 re-edition of Jonas' Philosophical Essays: From Current Creed to Technological Man, published by the University of Chicago Press available here https://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/jonas.pdf

Summary and comments here: http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/pecorip/SCCCWEB/ETEXTS/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_7_Human_Experimentation/Readings.htm

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NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 8 ABORTION

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.

6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000, Page 126, Decision Scenario #1

For months doctors told eleven-year-old Visna (as weíll call her) and her parents that her abdominal pains were nothing but indigestion. Then in July 1998 the truth finally emergedóVisna was twenty-seven weeks pregnant.

Visnaís family had emigrated from India to the Detroit suburb of Sterling Heights, Michigan, only the previous summer. Her parents found factory jobs and rented a two-bedroom apartment, and Visna shared one of the rooms with Hari, her sixteen-year-old brother. Sometime during the winter after their arrival in the United States, Visna told her parents that Hari had raped her, but this emerged only after Visna, who had turned twelve, was found to be pregnant.

As soon as Bisnís parents learned her condition, they made plans to take her to Kansas for an abortion. Visna would have to have a late-term abortion, and because Michigan law bans almost all abortions after twenty-four weeks, her family would have to take her out of state. But their plans were frustrated when they were leaked to a family court judge. Charges of parental negligence were filed by prosecutors against her parents, and the court immediately removed Visna from her family and made her a ward of the state.

At a court hearing, Visnaís doctor argued that if her pregnancy were allowed to continue, it could cause her both physical and psychological damage. A psychologist testified that because Visna was a Hindu, if she were forced to have an illegitimate child, it would make her unfit for marriage by another Hindu. Her parents also expressed their worry that if Visna had a child, the child might suffer from genetic abnormalities and, in particular, might be mentally retarded, because her brother was the father.

At the end of the hearing the prosecution announced it was convinced pregnancy might endanger Visnaís life and dropped the negligence charge against her parents. Visna was reunited with her family, and her parents pursued their original plan of taking her to Kansas. In Wichita, Dr. George Tiller, who had been shot in 1993 by a pro-life activist, stopped the fetusís heart and used drugs to induce labor, thus performing a "partial-birth" abortion.

1. Reading Comprehension

 For this case what would each of the following authors hold and WHY :

Find descriptions of their positions here:

http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/pecorip/SCCCWEB/ETEXTS/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_8_Abortion/Readings.htm

2. Critical Thinking

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the Case of Visna and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

  • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

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NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 9 SEVERELY IMPAIRED NEWBORNS, FUTILITY AND INFANTICIDE

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 . Page 185 Scenario #8

I had been working as a bioethics advisor at University Hospital for three months before I was called in to consult on a pediatrics case. Br. Savano, the attending obstetrician, asked me to meet with him and Dr. Hinds, one of the staff surgeons, to talk with the father of a newborn girl.

I went to the consulting room with Dr. Hinds to Joel Blake. From what Dr. Savano had already told me, I knew that Mr. Blake was in his early twenties and worked as clerk at a discount store called the Bargain Barn. The Babyís mother was Hilda Godgeburn, and she and Mr. Blake were not married.

Mr. Blake was very nervous. He knew that the baby had been born just three hours or so before and that Ms. Godgeburn was in very good condition. But Dr. Savano had not told him anything about the baby.

"Iím sorry to have to tell you this," Dr. Savano said. "But the baby was born with severe defects."

"My God," Blake said. "Whatís the matter?" "Itís a condition called spina bifida," Dr. Savano said. "Thereís a hole in the babyís back just below the shoulder blades, and some of the nerves from the spine are protruding through it. The baby will have little or no control over her legs, and she wonít be able to control her bladder of bowels." Br. Savano paused to see if Mr. Blake was understanding him. "The legs and feet are also deformed to some extent because of the defective spinal nerves."

Mr. Blake was shaking his head, paying close attention but hardly able to accept what he was being told.

"Thereís one more thing," Dr. Savano said. "The spinal defect is making the head fill up with liquid from the spinal canal. Thatís putting pressure on the brain. We can be sure that the brain is already damaged, but if the pressure continues the child will die."

"Is there anything that can be done?" Blake asked. "Anything at all?"

Dr. Savano nodded to Dr. Hinds. "We can do a lot," Dr. Hinds said. "We can drain the fluid from the head, repair the opening in the spine, and later we can operate on the feet and legs."

"Then why arenít you doing it?" Mr. Blake asked. "Do I have to agree to it? If I do, then I agree. Please go ahead."

"Itís not that simple," Dr. Hinds. "You see, we can perform surgery, but that wonít turn your baby into a normal child. She will always be paralyzed and mentally retarded. To what extent, we canít say now. Her bodily wastes will have to be drained to the outside by means of artificial devices that weíll have to connect surgically. There will have to be several operations, probably, to get the drain from her head to work properly. A number of operations on her feet will be necessary."

"Oh, God," Mr. Blake said. "Hilda and I canít take it. We donít have enough money for the operations. And even if we did, we would have to spend the rest of our lives taking care of the child."

"The child could be put into a state institution, " Dr. Hinds said.

"Thatís even worse," Mr. Blake said. "Just handling our problem to somebody else. And what kind of life would she have? A pitiful, miserable life."

None of the rest of us said anything. "You said she would die without the operation to drain her head," Mr. Blake said. "How long would that take?"

"A few hours, perhaps," Dr. Savano said. "But we canít be sure. It may take several days, and conceivably she might not die at all."

"Oh, God," Mr. Blake said again. "I donít want her to suffer. Can she just be put to sleep painlessly?"

Dr. Savano didnít answer the question. He seemed not even to hear it. "Weíll have to talk to Ms. Godgeburn also," he said. " And before you make up your mind for good, I ant you to talk with the bioethics advisor. You two discuss the matter, and the advisor will perhaps bring out some things you havenít though about. Dr. Hinds will leave you both together now. Let me know when youíve reached your final decision and weíll talk again."

Critical Thinking

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You are to advise Mr. Blake of what would be morally correct or acceptable.  You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

  • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

____VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU__________________

NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

***************************************************

I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

***************************************************

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Written Assignment for MODULE 10 CARE OF THE DYING

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 . Page 243 Scenario #2

Jeffry Box was eighty-one years old when he was brought to Doctorís Hospital. His right side was paralyzed, he spoke in a garbled way, and he had trouble understanding even the simplest matters. His only known relative was his sister four years younger, and she lived half a continent away. When a hospital social worker called to tell her about her brotherís condition, she was quite uninterested. "I havenít seen him in fifteen years," she said. "I thought he might already be dead. Just do whatever you think best for him. Iím too old to worry about him."

Neurological tests and X-ray studies showed that Mr. Box was suffering from a brain hemorrhage caused by a ruptured brain vessel.

"You can fix it?" asked Dr. Hollins. She was the resident responsible for Mr. Boxís primary care. The man she addressed was Dr. Carl Oceana, the staffís only neuro surgeon.

"Sure," said Dr. Oceana. "I can repair the vessel and clean out the mess. But it wonít do much good, you know?"

"You mean heíll still be paralyzed?"

"And heíll still be mentally incoherent. After the operation heíll have to be placed in a chronic care place, because he wonít be able to see to his own needs."

"And if you donít operate?" Dr. Hollins asked.

Dr. Oceana shrugged. "Heíll be dead by tomorrow. Maybe sooner, depending on how long it takes for the pressure in his skull to build up."

"What would you do?"

"I know what I would want done to me if I were the patient," said Dr. Oceana. "Iíd want people to keep their knives out of my head and let me die a nice, peaceful death."

"But we donít know what he would want." Dr. Hollins said.

"Heís never been our patient before, and the social worker hasnít been able to find any friends who might tell us what he would want done."

"Letís just put ourselves in his place," said Dr. Oceana. "Letís do unto others what we would want done unto us."

"That means letting Mr. Box die."

"Exactly."

 

1. Reading Comprehension

State what the Rule Utilitarian and Natural Law positions would be in this case and why you think so for each position.

Critical Thinking

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the case of Mr. Box and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

  • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

_____VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU_________________

NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

***************************************************

I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

***************************************************

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Written Assignment for MODULE 11  DELIBERATE TERMINATION OF LIFE AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 , Page 247, Scenario #8

"Apparently, he was inside the take with an oxygen hose to provide ventilation," Dr. Mangel said. "There was some oil residue on the walls. When Mr. Golenga struck an arc to weld the seam, there was a flash fire."

Mrs. Golenga gripped the hand of her nineteen-year-old son, Cervando. Both had been crying, but now listening was so important that they forced back their tears.

"How badly hurt is he?" Mrs. Golenga asked.

"Very badly," Dr. Mangel said. "Most of his body is covered with severe burns, and his lungs are damaged form breathing in the fire and smoke."

"Will he live?" Cervando asked.

"I have to be honest with you and say that I donít think he will," Dr. Mangel said. "We are giving him plasma and saline solutions to rehydrate him and antibiotics to try to stop infections. But he hasnít got much of a chance."

"The pain, what about the pain?" asked Mrs. Golenga.

"Thereís only so much we can do."

"Thereís really no hope?" Cervando asked.

"I wouldnít say that," Dr. Mangel said. "There is always hope. But in this case it is very limited. He might die in a few hours, or he might die tomorrow or the next day."

"Please," Mrs. Golenga said. "Can you help him die? I know he doesnít want to suffer if he has no real hope. He told me often ĎIf something happens to me, donít let them stick me full of needles and keep me alive. Tell them to put me out of my misery.í Can you do that, Doctor?"

Are you sure thatís what he would want?" Dr. Mangel asked.

"My mother is right," Cervando said. "Iíve heard my father say that many times. He said he never wanted to just lie around and suffer, being a burden to himself and everyone. We want to do as he wanted us to."

"We could stop treating hom," Dr. Mangel said. "then let nature take its course."

"That sounds terrible," Mrs. Golenga said. "To make a man fight for his life when he has no hope and ho help. It is cold and cruel."

"Iím sorry," said Dr. Mangel. "Itís all that the law permits me to do."

1. Reading Comprehension

State whether James Rachels in Active and Passive Euthanasia  ( http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/DeathandDying_TEXT/Rachels_Active_Passive.htm   would disagree with Daniel Callahan in  his article  When Self Determination Runs Amok (http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_10_Care_of_the_Dying/READING_Callahan.htm in this case as to what to do and defend your answer giving reasons for what you think their positions would be.

Critical Thinking

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on the Case of Mr. Mengel and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

  • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

____________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 12 REPRODUCTION , ASSISTANCE AND CONTROL

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 . Page 730 Scenario 10

"Iím going to be blunt about it," Dr. Carl McKensie said. "You are fifty-five, and thatís too old to have a child."

"Youíre not trying to tell me itís impossible, are you?" Kisha Clare asked. "Iíve read that you can use donated eggs and donated sperm to fertilize them outside the body, then implant them and have a normal pregnancy. Iím sure itís expensive, but Tom and I have got enough money, and I want to have a baby."

"Oh, itís possible," Dr. McKensie admitted, "but itís a bad idea because youíll be too old to take care of a child properly. When he starts first grade, youíll be sixty-two, and when he graduated from high school, youíll be seventy-fouróif youíre still alive." McKensie shook his head. "You should have thought of having a child earlier."

"I had a career to work on and a lot of personal problems." Clare frowned, remembering the long hours in the office and how relieved she was when she finally left her husband. "I can be a better mother now than I could have been when I was thirty or even forty. Iím financially secure, Iím happy with myself, and I really want a child." She shook her head. "Statistically, Iím going to live for another twenty-five years, and thatís enough to raise a child."

"But is it fair to a child to be raised by an old person?"

"Grandparents raise children all the time." Clare glared at Dr. McKensie. "And men have children whenever they want to, no matter how old they are. They donít have to get permission from some doctor."

"But an older man can have children only if he has some younger woman as a partner." Dr. McKensie glared back at Clare. "That way the child has one younger parent."

"I think youíre discriminating against me," Clare said in a flat voice.

"I am." Dr. McKensie nodded his head. "But itís justifiable. There are compelling reasons why an older, postmenopausal woman, even if she has the money, should not be allowed to become a mother, just because she wants to. Itís unfair to society, to younger women with fertility problems, and to the child."

 Critical Thinking

Provide ethical grounds for a policy with regard to the age of a woman requesting to receive an implantation of a fertilized egg.  Do NOT simply respond to this case. Focus on setting a policy for all women and all doctors to follow.

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be on Assisting Women over the Age of Menopause to become Pregnant and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

  • a. Take a position on this question or issue Be as exact as you can be.  Be precise in your use of language (ethical principles and values).
  • b.  Provide the reasons why you think this position is better defended by reason and evidence than are the alternative positions Position defended using reasoning (ethical principles and values) in support of the judgment (conclusion of the  argument).  You state the reasons why the position you take makes sense and has evidence and reasons (ethical principles and values) to support it other than your feelings or personal preference or your opinion or what you were brought up to believe or what just about everyone you know thinks or believes.   Philosophers have offered such reasons (ethical principles and values) and evidence for the positions they have taken and you should consider them and if you agree you can and should so state them in support of your own position.
  • c.  State the reasons why you found the other positions flawed or less defensible than the one you are defending
  • d.  State the criticisms of your position
  • e.   Respond to the criticisms- rebuttal- how do you defend your position in light of those criticisms

______________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

***************************************************

I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 13 ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES: SCARCITY AND TRIAGE

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 ., Page 799, Decision Scenario #9

Dr. Sarah Brandywine hurried into Dr. Klineís inner office. Dr. Kline was transplant coordinator at Mid-western General Hospital, and he was expecting her. She had called him for an appointment as soon as she had realized the dimension of the problem with Mr. Wardell.

"So tell me about Mr. Wardell," Dr.Kine said, nodding toward the chair beside his desk.

"Heís fifty-one-year-old man who came to the hospital two days ago because he was frightened by the jaundice and ascites he developed over the course of the last week," Dr. Brandywine said. "He have been experiencing fatigue and loss of appetite several weeks prior to the jaundice. His liver is swollen and lumpy."

"Sounds like cirrhosis," Dr. Kline said. "Iím sure you did liver function tests, but what about a biopsy?"

"We did both yesterday. And I called you right after the final results. Thereís so much scarring that Mr. Wardell has little liver function left." She shook her head. "I want to put him on the transplant list."

"Whatís the cause of his disease?"

"Itís alcohol induced."

"No way." Dr. Kline shook his head. "No livers for alcoholics. No ifs, ands, or buts about it."

"This is a man with two kids." Dr. Brandywine tried to keep her voice level. "Oneís twelve, and the other is eight. Their mother died two years ago, and their dad is all theyíve got left."

"Oh, God, the kids make it particularly sad." Dr. Klineís voice took on a pained expression. "But look, thirty thousand people a year from alcoholic cirrhosis, and we canít treat them at all."

"I know we canít, but canít we treat some?" Dr. Brandy wine leaned forward. "Is being an alcoholic enough for an automatic turndown?"

"Iím afraid so." Dr. Kline nodded. "These are people who created their own problem. There are far being enough livers to go around, so itís only fair for us to put folks with problems not of their own making on the list and to leave others off."

"But, look, this guyís got two kids depending on him." Sarah squeezed her hands into fists. "If I can get him into a rehab program, can we promise him the chance at a liver then?" She quickly added. "Not a guaranteed liver, but a chance at one."

"The answerís still no." Dr. Kline paused. "Iím not saying alcoholics canít be reformed, but I am saying theyíre bad risks. If we give a transplant to somebody whose liver was destroyed by biliary cirrhosis, weíre likely to get a good, long-term survival. But if we transplant somebody whoís been drinking for the last ten or twenty years, weíre not likely to get food, long term results. The guy may promise to stop drinking and maybe heíll do it for a while. But chances are good that, within a few years, heís going to be back in the hospital with liver failure again, and alcohol is going to be the cause."

"I admit the numbers are against me." Dr. Brandywine inhaled deeply, then let her breath out in a long whoosh. "Thereís nothing I can say to convince you?"

"We canít afford to risk wasting a liver," Dr. Kline said. "Thatís what Iíve got to convince you of." He shook his head. "It breaks my heart to think about Mr. Wardellís children, but Iíve got to think about the parents with cirrhosis who arenít alcoholics."

Critical Thinking

Should lifestyle factors be considered in the allocation of scarce life saving medical resources? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.  Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

Use this template or form to make certain that you include each part of the process-parts a to e

Label your parts with the letters a to e to make very clear that you have done each part.

Dialectical thinking: the 5 parts

 

______________________VIDEO on Dialectical Process http://www.youtube.com/user/PhilipPecorino#play/uploads/21/zziTWJPbYyU

NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

***************************************************

I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE 14 A CLAIM OF A RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE

I

From: Munson, Ronald. INTERVENTION AND REFLECTION.6th ED.,Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,2000 ., Page 863, Decision Scenario 6

"Let me explain it to you, Mr. Faust," Charles Young said. "Although your wife is covered by Medicare, we cannot pay for the care she is receiving in the nursing home. As an Alzheimerís patient, sheís getting custodial care, and that is explicitly excluded from Medicare coverage. Do you have any insurance?"

"My wife and I both have coverage through my job. Bu the benefits office told me exactly the same thing. My policy doesnít cover long-term, chronic, or custodial care."

"Iím sorry to hear that," Young said. "That means that youíll have to pay the total cost of care yourself."

"Where can a sales rep get that kind of money?" Mr. Faust said. "A nursing home will cost me forty or fifty thousand dollars a year. If I sell our house and use all our savings, I could pay for maybe a year or two, but then I wouldnít have anything to live on myself. Where could I live? How could I eat?"

"The only alternative is to divest yourself of your assets so that you cannot be held legally responsible for paying for your wifeís care. The you and she can both get assistance under the Medicaid program."

"Then I have to literally become a pauper before I can get any help?"

"Iím sorry to say thatís true."

 

 Critical Thinking

Use any single (one) ethical principle from the group we have covered to support your position on each of these three issues. Hopefully it is the principle that you have decided is closest to your values and will use in making moral choices. If you are tempted to use different ethical principles for each of the three issues then you are an ethical egoist and you should use that principle on all three issues.

1. Should a national health care program pay for the custodial care of the elderly? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

2.Should family members be required by law to help pay the health care expenses of the other family members? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

3. Should people with incomes adequate to cover their health care expenses or to buy private health insurance be ineligible to participate in a national health insurance plan? Defend your position using ETHICAL principles.

Use any single (one) ethical principle from the group we have covered to support your position on each of these three issues. Hopefully it is the principle that you have decided is closest to your values and will use in making moral choices. If you are tempted to use different ethical principles for each of the three issues then you are an ethical egoist and you should use that principle on all three issues.

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NOTE:  A Case Study is due for this module at the same time the written assignment is due!

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email ,and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Written Assignment for MODULE:  CULMINATING ACTIVITY: BONUS EXERCISE

THREE (3) Parts

PART I   Answer each of the questions below and submit

ABOUT THE SUBJECT MATTER: FINAL EXERCISE 

1. Which of the issues covered this semester has been the most important and why so?

2. Which of the issues covered this semester has meant anything to you personally and why so?

3. Why are not more people aware of these troublesome questions, issues or problems?

4. Now that you have been educated as to these issues in Biomedical Ethics in what way will they have any consequence in your life?

5. Are you in a better position now to think about and handle these issues using ethical principles?

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PART II

Place your best example of using ethical dialectical thinking into a submission to me. Send it to me by email in a separate email from all other messages or submissions.

Title it as : ETHICAL DIALECTICAL THINKING

Using the DIALECTICAL PROCESS state what your ethical position would be and why. You are to take a position and defend it. You should use some ethical principle to decide what you think is the morally correct thing to do. You must state those principles and explain how they have been applied to the situation. You should indicate that you have rejected alternative positions to your own and the reasons why you have done so.  In so doing you need to enunciate clearly the values and ethical principle(s) you are using to both reject the alternative positions and to defend or support your own.

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PART III

ABOUT THE COURSE: FINAL EXERCISE 

1: What did you like best about this course? 

2: What specific things do you think could be improved in the structure or design of the course and learning activities? 

3: How would you improve the quality and participation in course discussions/interactions? 

4:   What changes would you suggest be made to the pacing or sequence of the content and activities for this course? (e.g., were the due dates doable for you? Were the course materials sequenced well?) 

5:  What changes would you suggest be made to the quantity of work required for this course? 

6:  How could the course be improved in terms of my interaction, participation, and management of the course? 

7:  What other suggestions, comments, or recommendations would you have for the instructor?

8:  What advice do you offer to students who would be just entering the class at the very start of the semester?

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker , then copy and paste your text-answers into the message window of an email and send it to the instructor by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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CASE STUDIES

Each student must submit a case presentation on some incident or situation which relates to the topic and issues of this module. Such presentations consist of the following two(2) sections.

a. Materials concerning the case located on the internet

i. Newspaper articles

ii. Magazine articles

iii. Professional Journal articles , e.g., Philosophy, Law, Medicine Nursing, Public Health, etc..

iv. Other Internet items

MINIMUM of four (4) items

b. Viewpoints on the case by analysts, ethicists, commentators .

MINIMUM of four (4) items which MUST include commentary and/or analysis by people who use ethical principles. These would NOT be articles in newspapers or magazines but items found in professional journals or at the websites of academic and professional organizations.

This is basically an assignment where you will use a number of search engines to gather materials from the internet.

GOOGLE, Northernlights, yahoo, etc...

You will copy and paste the addresses(url's) of those materials into a single file or document and then send it (submit it) to the instructor. You do NOT need to and should not make any personal comments on the case . So, you are NOT required to do any original thinking or critical thinking on the case. You will be gathering the materials and hopefully reading them and in so doing you will learn more about the issues involved and in gathering materials that involve ethical analysis you will learn more about that as well.

case studies: Directions

To submit them you do the same as for the written assignment. If you do not have WORD just put the material right into the message window that opens when you click on the "create an new email" icon.

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I suggest that you create your assignments using your word-processing program and spell checker ,
then SEND FILE to the instructor or by email with the text inside the email message window. DO NOT send attachments .

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Research in Philosophy on the Internet.

Free tutorial on doing research in Philosophy on the Internet.

http://www.humbul.ac.uk/vts/philosophy/index.htm

As for the search engine, you would enter:

cloning + human + ethics

malpractice + stonybrook hospital

malpractice + ethics

kevorkian + ethics

mercy killing + ethics

confidentiality + law

confidentiality + ethics

CASE PRESENTATION FORMAT

Your NAME:

CASE TITLE:

DESCRIPTION of the case by student:

urlís for the Articles Describing case:

urlís for Articles with Ethical Position: Philosophers, Theologians, Lawyers, Medical Doctors

SUBMISSION of the CASE STUDY

The student will make the submission by attaching a file that has the text and the links to the internet sites of articles and other related items.

The BEST of these submissions will be placed on a website with the studentís name as author. These will be used by future students of this course.

If any student feels able and willing to create a POWERPOINT presentation for the case study including live links and illustrations, images, photos, etc... contact me for permission and instructions on what would be required and how to submit the material.

When you are ready you simply go to the submission section of this module and open the submission document and then click on the link for submitting an assignment and then attach your file with the case study including the url's.

File formats for submission must be limited to: WORD , html, webpage, dos

I shall make my comments on what you submit and assign a grade.

If you want to you can submit the assignment early and I'll comment on it and return it to you and you can proceed to work on it and submit the final work by the deadline.

For a SAMPLE CASE STUDY click here>  SAMPLE

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You may want to print this part of this document out.

INSTRUCTIONS for PREPARING and SUBMITTING WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

Each student is requested to submit the following assignments according to the schedule for the semester. Check on the COURSE CALENDAR for the due dates.

Assignments are intended to provide for an assessment of the learner's achievement and progress. Assignments and parts of assignments are intended to assess the learner's motivation, reading comprehension, critical thinking skills and appreciation of philosophy.  Assignments may be revised. Assignments for modules 1 to 12 may be revised and resubmitted any number of times up to one month before the end of the semester. Assignments for modules 12 to 14 may be revised and resubmitted up to the date of the last scheduled class.

Composing your assignment

Normally, you should compose your response using your word processor or on paper. This will give you the opportunity to revise, proofread, and spell check. When you have completed your assignment document be sure to spell check it .

Make sure to read the directions for each assignment carefully for details, due dates, and any thing else that may be specific to the assignment.

Format For Submitting Written Assignments 

Whether you are in an ONLINE CLASS or a traditional class or a hybrid class

The student is to submit the word processed text to the instructor ONLY by EMAIL  ppecorino@qcc.cuny.edu   Do not send attachments!!!   Copy and paste your text from the word processor directly into the message window of the email.  In the subject line put:

first name , last name, class number  PL 211, section 100 , assignment#

Evaluations

The evaluation for your assignment will appear directly in your document or with your document when returned to you by email or returned directly to you by the instructor.  Evaluations are private and can only be read by the student and professor.

OBSERVE THE DUE DATES!!   Check on due dates:

All written assignments may be revised and resubmitted.  At least one assignment must be submitted in draft form and then after receiving the instructorís comments and suggestions, it is to be revised and resubmitted for formal assessment.  Students may resubmit their revised assignments no more than three times before the final day of class.

In all cases the written work must show evidence of the authorís awareness of the materials made available in the online textbook and through the related Internet links found in the Online Textbook that is part of the course.   Proper citations and accreditation are to be made evident in the body of the work. The learners are required to provide evidence of research and scholarship and to AVOID Plagiarism!

Criteria for evaluation of the written assignments is given under Course Information document titled Ē How you will be evaluated.Ē  Other students will not view student written assignments anywhere within the course.  Students may send drafts of their work to their classmates and discuss them through the use of email.   They may discuss the assignment itself within the course in the Student Cafť.

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