Logic: The Art of Thinking

Assignment

FALLACIES

Read Chapters 4,5,6 of the course textbook, Critical Thinking, by Moore and Parker

 

Go to the website and review the material for chapter 1
Chapter Materials:
Objectives
Glossary
Tutorial
Review Exercises

 

Website address( url) : http://www.mayfieldpub.com/ct/chapterindex.htm

 

Submit the exercises by email to the instructor by the date indicated in the course calendar.

 

Alternative exercise for extra credit is given below.  If you wish to do this quiz for bonus credit

request an answer sheet from your instructor who will give you the date it is due.

IDENTIFY THE FALLACY IN EACH OF THE SELECTIONS BELOW.

SELECT THE BEST CHOICE FROM THE OPTIONS PRESENTED . 

1. We haven't made a case against Sleazer that will stand up in court so far, but if he refuses to testify it follows that a jury will see that he must have some thing to hide. That'll prove that he is guilty.

a) hasty generalization b) begging the question c) appeal to consequences d) appeal to ignorance e) division

 

2. A personal computer is a very complicated piece of machinery and very difficult to understand how exactly it works. This mouse attachment is part of the computer so it must be difficult to understand and too complicated for me to attach or adjust or to work.

a) converse accident b) division c) composition d) amphiboly e) sweeping generalization - accident

3. Brazilian government official speaking with an American official from the State Department: So Americans would like to criticize our policy of developing our domestic resources by reducing the size of our rain forests and relocating some of our original inhabitants. Tell me what government was it who destroyed much of the North American environment and forcibly relocated the original peoples of that land?

a) complex question b) begging the question c) hasty generalization d) ad hominem attack - tuo quoque variety e) big lie

4. When your friend asks you how you like his new girlfriend you should tell him your true opinion because lying is wrong.

a) amphiboly b) red herring - diversion c) division d) accident -sweeping generalization e) false dilemma

5. More CUNY students have become graduates than ever before in NYC history. This finding is based upon statistics reported in the NYC Yearly Review. The periodical reported that the number of graduates is up 10% over 1980. CUNY must be doing a good job.

a) biased statistics -select sample b) unknowable statistics c) small sample d) suppressed evidence e) accidental correlation

6. Genetics could be the reason some people become addicted to cocaine and others don't. Dr. Adelaide Sandiford, NY State Board of Regents, has stated that 80% of the crack cocaine addicts in a recent study were black. She has theorized that the melanin in the bodies of blacks predisposes one to addiction.

a) biased statistics b) unknowable statistics c) small sample d) data of a different quality e) accidental correlation

7. After speaking with over one hundred people and finding that most of them (83%) prefer to live in New York, I can only conclude that New York State is one of the most popular places in which to live in the world.

a) biased statistics- select sample -unrepresentative sample b) unknowable statistics c) small sample d) data of a different quality e) accidental correlation

8. I must admit that the one hundred people in the survey mentioned above were all New York State residents. This feature of the survey reveals the survey to be:

a) biased sample b) unknowable statistics small sample d) data of a different quality e) accidental correlation

9. Two out of three illegal aliens eventually resort to committing violent crimes. Such a claim might well be an example of:

a) biased statistics b) unknowable statistics c) small sample d) data of different quality e) accidental correlation

10. We cannot prove conclusively with rational argument that GOD-supreme being- exists. But those who are stubborn and refuse to believe in the existence of GOD will soon enough feel the wrath of the eternal fires.

a) accident b) appeal to force -consequences c) false dilemma d)post hoc - false cause e) equivocation

11. It's clear that the US attack on Iraq was unjustified because there were not sufficient reasons to support the US making such a move.

a) false cause b) begging the question - circular argument c) big lie d)accident sweeping generalization e) appeal to ignorance

12. The grand Jury report on Tawana Brawley is a sham. After all, the state of New York, who paid for it, is not really interested in the truth. Even the report admits that it can not account completely for her whereabouts during the entire four day period. The conclusion that there was no evidence that she had been raped is obviously wrong.

a)appeal to authority b) appeal to pity c) appeal to ignorance d) hasty generalization - converse accident e) tuo quoque - ad hominem

13. Jim: Bush undertook a lot of politically risky actions for what he believed to be for the good of the country, such as the actions in Panama and in Iraq. You have got to give him credit for the courage to do that.

John: No, I don't! I'm a Democrat and I'll give him credit for nothing.

John's position is an example of:

a) tuo quoque b) ad hominem - psychological attack c) appeal to authority d) provincialism e) accent

14. When asked why he was intoxicated the painter told the homeowner, "Well sir, you told me to paint the wall when thoroughly plastered." The painter's response provides an example of:

a) tuo quoque b) amphiboly c) equivocation d) ad hominem e) accident

15. The books in the library are stored in an orderly fashion. The desks and tables are orderly. So it is throughout the library. The library, therefore, as a whole is an orderly place.

a) division b) appeal to tradition c) composition d) beard e)appeal to ignorance

16. They forecast a big snow storm for Atlanta. So, when he left Logan Airport in Boston. Charlie had his boots and heavy clothing with him. Charlie's behavior is based on the error:

a) division b) composition c) false analogy d) equivocation e) accident

17. The National Football League (NFL) is a well known group.

Lance Brown is a member of the NFL. Therefore, Lance Brown is well-known.

a) division b) composition c) false analogy d) equivocation e) accident

18. A recent survey shows that the homeless are on the whole much heavier uses of drugs than those who have homes. So, being homeless leads to drug use.

a) appeal to tradition b) appeal to pity c) ad hominem d) biased statistics e) false cause - post hoc

19. The establishment of employment quotas based upon race and ethnicity is what you can expect if the affirmative action laws, policies and rulings are maintained. There will be no more hiring based upon merit . Once the policies are in effect for a few years there will no longer be competency criteria.

a) straw person b) appeal to consequences c) appeal to authority d) appeal to tradition e) false dilemma

20. "Let's face it. You either stand up to tyrants like Sadam Hussein with force or you will give them the green light to expand his aggression and tyranny."

a) appeal to the people b) tuo quoque - ad hominem attack c) false dilemma d) inconsistency e) doubtable statement

21. Ad: ALL CLEAR reduces nasal congestion up to 80% Get a package today. Don't delay only to suffer unnecessary pain and discomfort.

a) appeal to the people b) doubtable statement c) false dilemma d) accident e) composition

22.Letter in reply to an editorial criticizing the US intervention in the Persian Gulf.

"Are you a tyrant lover? Would you have supported Hitler? Would you let those barbarians go on butchering innocent people and seizing their neighbors' land and oil? You typify the cowardly liberal left."

a) black-white thinking b) ignoratio elenchi- diversion c) loaded phrases d) ad hominem abusive attack e) all of the above

23. African American race activists have criticized the first jury in the Rodney King beating trial in light of testimony concerning what had preceded the filmed events and the LA PD guidelines and training. The same activists insist that the videotape of the beating of the truck driver , Reginald Denny, during the events in LA following the verdict must be seen in the perspective of repressed anger over the injustices, inequities and lack of power.

a) appeal to the people b) big lie c) appeal to tradition

d) inconsistent - special pleading e ) appeal to authority

24. Look, a Haitian immigrant. Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world. So That Haitian alien must be one of the poorest people in the world.

a) composition b) division c) accident d) converse accident e) big lie

25. Your friend has asked you to promise not to reveal a confidence and you do. Then she reveals that she is about to end her life. You believe that you must observe your promise and tell no one.

a.) big lie b) hasty generalization c) sweeping generalization d) tuo quoque-ad hominem e) false dilemma

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