Logic: The Art of Thinking

Assignment

Induction

Read Chapters 11, 12 of the course textbook, Critical Thinking, by Moore and Parker 
Go to the website and review the material for chapters 11,12
Chapter Materials:
Objectives
Glossary
Tutorial
Review Exercises

 

Website address( url) :

 http://www.mayfieldpub.com/ct/chapterindex.htm

 

Submit the exercises by email to the instructor by the dates indicated in the course calendar.
For an alternative or BONUS assignment  select any of the groups of examples below other than GROUP I and follow the instructions, turn in your analyses to your instructor on the due date

 

For each of the short arguments listed below do the following:
I. Determine whether the following inductive arguments are:
a. inductive generalization
b. inductive analogy
c. statistical induction
d. other

II. State the conclusion and premises of each argument as clearly

as possible. 

III. Evaluate to what extent the argument satisfies the

criteria for evaluating such arguments.

 

GROUP I

1. The movie I saw on the late show yesterday was a mystery, and

the movie I say on the late show the night before that was a

mystery. Therefore, the movie I will see on tonight's late show

will be a mystery.

 

2. Regina plays football; so do Christine and Judith; so probably

all girls play football.

 

3. I have been a Yankee baseball fan for many years and have

followed seventeen of their players very closely. All seventeen

are great hitters, great fielders and great throwers. It must be

that all Yankees can hit, field, and throw well.

 

4. Earth is a planet and revolves in an elliptical orbit around

the sun. Mars is a planet and revolves in an elliptical orbit

around the sun. Jupiter is a planet and revolves in an elliptical

orbit around the sun. Therefore, all planets revolve in

elliptical orbits around the sun.

 

5. In Texas, all the roses grow big. In Texas, all the chickens

grow big. In Texas, all the boys grow big. In Texas, all the

girls grow big. Therefore, in Texas all things grow big.

 

6. A mouse is a warm-blooded mammal.

A porpoise is a warm-blooded mammal.

Therefore, all mammals are warm-blooded.

 

7. Jack couldn't ride the palomino at last year's fair. Bill

couldn't ride the palomino at last year's fair. Therefore, no one

can ride the palomino at this year's fair.

 

8. My father has always listened to me when I talk to him. My

brother, too, always listens to me. My mother always listens to

me when I talk to her. Therefore, everybody always listens to me

when I talk.

GROUP II

 

1. Joe: I got a line that I know has got to work on Barbara to get

her to go out with me.

Sam: How do you know that it'll work?

Joe: Well, it worked on Sally and on Jennifer and on Louise and

even on Shirley and they're all girls, you know. It'll

work on any girl.

2. Driver: Do you think that you can fix my car?

Mechanic: Sure, no problem.

Driver: But have you worked on a Mitshubishi automobile

before?

Mechanic: No, but I've worked on Datsuns, Toyotas and Hondas and

this one you've got is made in Japan same as those are.

 

3. Bill: Wow, this Dr. Brown's plant growth formula must really

work.

Mary: What makes you think so?

Bill: Well I bought four of these Begonia plants at the florist

shop a month ago. They were all pretty much the same.

I put two on the kitchen windowsill and two on the

windowsill in the living room. I used Dr. Brown's plant

growth formula on the two in the living room but not on

the two in the kitchen. You can see for yourself how

more the two in the living room have grown, can't you?

That proves it to me.

 

4. Two repairmen talking:

Al: We've got to figure out where this wire comes out on the

other side of this wall.

Sam: I think that I know which one it is.

Al: How do you know?

Sam: It's got to be this one here on the left because every time

I pull on that one the wire on the other side gets

tighter.

5. Mary: You go figure it.

Bill: Go figure what?

Mary: We didn't get those promotions we expected. Only to

people got promoted : Joe McGuiness and Louise

Masonovich and those two couldn't be more different.

One a male, the other a female. One is short , the other

tall. They have different temperaments, work habits,

management styles; the works. So , how do you figure

what made them get promoted. What do you have to do to

get promoted around here?

Bill: No problem. I know why they were promoted.

Mary: What is it?

Bill: They have one thing in common: they both park in parking

lot number 3 and that's the lot the boss parks in.

GROUP III.

1. Joe: I'm going to install this new vcr that I have just

purchased.

Sam: How do you know how to do that?

Joe: Well, I've installed two other models made by this

manufacturer, so I'm sure that I can do it. This model

isn't much different.

Sam: You're not even reading the directions.

Joe: Don't have to. I already told you. I'm experienced.

2. George: This plant isn't doing well. I think it must be

getting too much light. After all it's by the window.

Henry: Are you sure?

George: Yes. There were three plants. The other two are doing

fine in the living room. I treat them all alike. But,

this one by the kitchen window gets more sunlight than

the other two.

Henry: That's what makes you so certain.

George: Yes.

3. Bert: This city administration is filled with corruption.

All of the mayors appointees are corrupt.

Ernie: What makes you think that?

Bert: Well , look for yourself. The director of transportation

was found guilty of taking bribes. Same thing with the

head of the highway department and the taxi commission.

The cultural affairs commissioner and the sanitation

commissioner were also involved in conflict of interest

situations. Now if that doesn't show you, what does?

4. Mary: You go figure it.

Bill: Go figure what?

Mary: We didn't get those promotions we expected. Only to

people got promoted : Joe Williams and Louise

Mason and those two couldn't be more different.

One a male, the other a female. One is short , the other

tall. They have different temperaments, work habits,

management styles; the works. So , how do you figure

what made them get promoted. What do you have to do to

get promoted around here?

Bill: No problem. I know why they were promoted.

Mary: What is it?

Bill: They have one thing in common: they are both black.

 

5.

Larry: You can't trust this district attorney. I'm advising you

not to cooperate with the investigation.

Joe: Why not?

Larry: Well in another case that involved a white district

attorney and a crime against a black person the district

attorney was not at all aggressive is prosecuting the case.

He was engaged in a cover up. He was white just as this

one is.

Joe: I guess you are right. You know best.

GROUP IV

1. Jim: Hey, look at this will you.

John: What?

Jim: This fruit I bought. Some of it is no good. Look I bought a dozen fresh peaches at King Kullen. I picked up another dozen at Key Food. Well the dozen from Key Food

are sour tasting and dry.

John: So.

Jim: So, Key Food ruins its fruits. I won't get any more fruit from them.

 

2. Bill: Have I got a line that will work on Betty or what?

Gil: How are you so sure it will work?

Bill: Well it worked on Lorraine and she comes from the same town as Betty, is the same age and works with Betty.

Gil: You're so confident.

Bill: It worked on Lorraine's sister as well. She works with the other two. My method has been tried, tested and proven successful.

 

3. Marilyn: I know how to get out of taking the exam in this history course.

Joe: Yeah? What are you going to do?

Marilyn: Well, I have an excuse that will work on the History professor.

Joe: How do you know that it will work on him?

Marilyn: Well, it worked on my English prof and on my Math prof. They are all professors you know. It'll work on any of them.

 

4. Lynn: I can't get over this.

Louise: What?

Lynn: They just announced who will be the next assistant managers

Louise: And?

Lynn: Well, I thought that I would get one of the two positions.

Louise: You didn't?

Lynn: No, and I'm not going to sit back and take it either.

Louise: What can you do?

Lynn: Well, the two that got promoted are Bigelow and Graham.

They are both white, just like the other managers. It's obvious that's what it takes to get ahead around here.

It's just as obvious that as I am not white I'm going nowhere. Well, we'll see about that. I'm going to file a complaint with the authorities.

 

5. Carol: I have been doing as study of violent racial incidents.

Carl: Did you learn anything from it?

Carol: Well, I have noticed that in urban and suburban areas where there has been a significant increase in the number of immigrants over the last decade you are likely to see an increase in the number of attacks by young , poorly educated, poorly employed members of the older resident community upon members of the incoming groups.

Carl: What does that prove?

Carol: The size and rate of influx of new immigrants is related to the number of attacks.

Carl: What are we supposed to learn from this?

Carol: To mitigate against this reactionary tendency, immigration rates should be carefully considered and in some cases immigration to certain areas discouraged or limited or else a comprehensive plan effectuated to educate the community residents as to the cultures of the new immigrants and as to the prevention of prejudiced attitudes and biased actions.

 

6. David: How about joining our group for summer vacation?

Donna: Where are you all going?

David: We got this great deal for a vacation package on Aruba

in mid-August.

Donna: Nothin' doin. I'm not going to Aruba.

David: Why not? We've got over twenty people goin' already.

It will be a lot of fun.

Donna: No, Thanks. Last August I went on a vacation on a

Caribbean island, and I had one horrible experience.

David: So?

Donna: So, I don't what that happening again.

 

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