ambiguity arising from special stress of words in a sentence,
misquoting, taking act of context,
emphasizing or shifting.
application of a generalization to a case that it is
not intended to cover. Also known as Sweeping
the Consequent (formal fallacy:Y
argument of the form:
If p then q . q./~ p.
fallacy; see black-white fallacy.
fallacies of: fallacies depending on shifts in sense within an argument;
Ambiguity of grammatical or syntactical construction.
(Argument appealing to)
See Force, appeal to.
(fear) scare tactic, see consequences
argument attacking the arguer rather than the arguments; includes the
following special cases.
hominer abusive: argument that an
opponent's view is incorrect because of some personal
defect of the opponent.
hominen circumstantial: attack on a
claim on the ground that the
opponent is prejudiced
in the question because of his special circumstances.
quoque: defense of a claim on the basis
that your opponent has himself made the claim or acted
in accord with it or could not do any better.
Attack:critique of argument based upon
critique of motives of arguer (psychoanalyzing)
ignorantium: see Ignorance appeal to.
misericordiam: see `Pity, appeal to.
see "Gallery, appeal to the: also ~appeal to the people the
Vulgus: appeal to popular prejudices
appeal to pride
verecundiam: see Authority, appeal to
Assumption of an irreversible
order: confusing correlation with a
appeal to: argument from the fact that
a purported authority supports a claim to the truth
of the claim.
appeal: argument that a view X is ~orrec't
because everybody thinks so or that doing' Y is right
because everybody does' it ( sometimes included under appeal to the
Beard, the; argument from difficulty in making a distinction precise in
all cases to the impossibility of applying the distinction in any
Question: argument that assumes what is to be proved; using
a premise whose acceptability presupposes the acceptability of the
conclusion; circularity in an argument that is hidden by verbiage.
Big Lie, fallacy of the : argument from a statement's having been
repeatedly asserted to the conclusion that there must be some truth in the
statement, or from a statement that at first appears so obviously false
yet the arguer not irrational to the conclusion that there must be some
truth to the statement.
Black and White
fallacy: argument that assumes that alternatives are
exhaustive when they are not.
Argument: (special cases of begging the question):
argument of the pattern: A because of B of C because of
....because of A.
Complex Question: use of a question that imposes a presupposition onto
Composition: argument based on the assumption that what is true of the
part must be true of the whole.
Confusing Necessary with Sufficient Conditions
Consequences: argument based on the assumption that a view should be
accepted (or rejected) because it will lead to good
(or bad) consequences.
Continuum, Fallacy of: See Beard, fallacy of the.
Converse Accident: attempt to refute an unqualified generalization by
means of exceptional cases.
also known as
Hasty Generalization based upon too few and exceptional
Denying the Antecendent
(formal fallacy): argument of the form if
p then q.
not ~ not
Dicto Siinpliciter ( a dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid): See
Tactics: attacking or supporting a view by shiifting the
point in question to a different but psychologically associated one (see
Irrelevant conclusion),. attempt to evade the main question by attacking
minor points in an opponent's arguments or by restoring to ridicule or
Division: argument based on the assumption that what is true of the
whole must be true of the parts.
Doubtable Statement: To accept statements at face value which should be
doubted given background information.
Equivocation: use' of a term in more than one sense; a fallacy of
equivocation results when the shift in sense
affects the relationship between the premises and the conclusion.
Ambiguity of semantical construction.
Alternative~: assuming that alternatives are contradictories when
they are only contraries. (see Black-White fallacy).
False Analogy: an argument from similarities in which the similarities
either do not actually hold or
are not relevant to the conclusion in question. overlooking important
False Cause: inference that A causes B on the basis of inadequate
evidence. Also known as post hoc,
assuming the cause, & questionable cause
False Dilemma: special case of false alternatives in which the
disjunctive premise of the dilemma is
false. non-exhaustive alternatives.
to: attempt to persuade by threats or
Fallacy: equivocation with regard to one of the terms in a
Gallery, appeal to the: argument appealing to popular prejudices.
Gambler's fallacy (Monte Carlo Fallacy); argument that an event that
has occurred less frequently than expected in the recent past is more
probable in the near future, or argument that proceeds based upon the
mistaken assumption that events which are independent become dependent.
Genetic fallacy: argument in which a claim is accepted or rejected on
the basis of its source; argument that projects characteristics of origins
onto things developing from those origins.
generalizing from insufficient or unrepresentative
cases. Also known as converse accident
Hypothesis Contrary to
Fact: argument of the patterns if P was in fact
related to Q. then if P had not occurred, Q could not have occurred.
to: argument from the lack of a proof that P is false
to the conclusion that P must be true or from a lack of proof that P is
true to the conclusion that P must be false.
Ignora: See Irrelevant conclusion. AKA - "Red
Definition: See Persuasive
Assumptions: use of premises that in conjunction form a
contradiction; use of a self-defeating principle that is as damaging to
one's own view as to one's opponent.
Conclusion: misdirect argument; use of premises that provide
support for one conclusion to provide support for a different but
psychologically associated conclusion. AKA - Ignoratio
Jumping to a
conclusion: See Hasty
Generalization, Converse Accident.
Question: see complex
Chopping: Irrelevant overprecision on a point of logic. (see
Misuse of contradictory
Alternatives: assuming that no two alternatives
are exhaustive, not even contradictory ones.
Mob, Appeal to
the: See Gallery, appeal to the.
Name Calling: attempt to discredit persons holding a view by using
abusive language. For example, *Are you going to listen to that effect
bleeding heart liberal?"
Proof, fallacy of: special case of ignorance, appeal to.
Non Sequitur (it does not follow): general term for arguments in which
the premises, even if true, give no adequate evidence for the conclusion.
Definition: Attempt to prejudice the case for or against a
view by appealing to a biased definition of one of the basic concepts
Petito Principii: see
to: argument that a conclusion should be accepted because
its acceptance would relieve someone's misery.
Well: attempt: to discredit an opponent's' source of
evidence (See Ad
Post Hoc (post hoc ergo
hoc): after this on account of this.
Presumptive Proof; see
Ignorance, appeal to.
Provincialism: to accept or reject a statement or argument because one
identifies with a particular group.
Epithet: loaded phrase such as "stodgy
conservative "or "bleeding heart" liberal" (see Name
Secundum Quid: See
Slanting: Argument based on a biased selection of the available
evidence; suppression of evidence that is favorable (or unfavorable) to a
Slope: see Beard, fallacy of the
Slogans, appeal to: appeal to catchy phrases in place of giving
Pleading: appeal to some assumption in attacking an opponents
view and then ignoring the consequences that assumption might have for
your own view (special case of inconsistency).
Sample: Hasty Generalization|
|B. Data of Different Quality|
|C. Biased Data: Selective Sample|
|D. Unknowable Statistics|
|E. Accidental Correlation|
fallacy: arguing against a view by attacking an exaggerated
or absurd extension of the view. "A special case of irrelevant
conclusion. Attacking a misstated form of an argument. a deliberately
Tuo quoque: See
Two Wrong Make A
Right: Answering a charge of wrongdoing, not by
showing that no wring was done, but rather by claiming others do it too.
Generalization: See Accident.
Generalization: See Accident.