Logic: The Art of Thinking


Argument Formation

I. Clarify Topic

        State CONCLUSION, Explain conclusion

ll. State Basic Reasoning

      Describe the basic approaches taken

III. Develop Evidence and Support

      Gather the facts, data, studies

      Expert witnesses, authorities, formal studies

IV. Consider Objections

State objections(1) and respond(1) to each one
state objections(2) to the responses and respond(2)
state objections(3) and respond(3) to each one

V. Respond to Alternative Positions and Counter-arguments 

cite entirely different approaches, world views etc...
show why favored position is to be preferred

  i.e., better argued, more evidence, more consistent with other goals

VI. Be aware of weaknesses and possible future criticisms be prepared for unexpected and new evidence

VII. Restate Basic Reasoning (summary)

VIII. Restate Conclusion

IX. Review entire argument

       use full analytic and evaluative procedures

X. Rework the argument in light of criticisms, weaknesses etc..


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