Logic: The Art of Thinking

Lesson

Introduction

 
 

LOGIC

LOGIC is employing reasoning in the evaluation of thinking: using reason in deciding what to think and to do. LOGIC involves examining the relation of evidence to conclusions and employing techniques for the control of thought in the evaluation and formation of arguments.

 

 

Argument: Premises and a conclusion

Premises are Propositions or Statements 

Statements are sentences (utterances) that make claims

Claims  are true or false utterances  

premise                                     Propositions 1. declaratory

premise                                                         2. interrogatory

premise                                                         3. exclamatory

--------------                                                     4. imperative

Conclusion

 

Argument: 

Premises         Evidence   Reasons   - Self Controlled Thought

lead to

warrant                                              method for fixing beliefs

support

____________ __________ ________ ______________________

Conclusion      Position      Beliefs        Habits of Acting

 

Logic is the study of arguments.

Critical thinking is using logic in formulating and evaluating arguments.

Critical thinking examines the relation of premises to conclusions

the relation of evidence to conclusions

the reasoning used in fixing beliefs

 

Reasoning is the process of self controlled thought which establishes the most acceptable method for fixing beliefs which are one's habits of acting.

Reasoning is

 constructive creative
analytical critical
theoretical  practical
   

Functions of Reasoning and Logic

Criticism 

Assurance

Persuasion- prove

Secure Knowledge

Justify Explanation

Refute

Communication

POWER: to force or compel or direct belief(conclusions) based upon evidence or reasons.

  ARGUMENTS  
  SATISFACTORY  UNSATISFACTORY
Deductive sound  unsound
  valid true premises false premises
     
Inductive strong  weak
  invalid true premises false/ problem premises
    irrelevant Premises
    insufficient Premises
    Suppressing Evidence
     
 
 

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