Chapter 6 : The MIND-BODY Problem

Development of Artificial Intelligence and Androids

Artificial Intelligence

            AI is the field of robotics that focuses on the development of intelligent machines that can process thoughts, understand human thinking and mimic it. The idea of “copying” the human brain is extremely difficult, for is a very complex biological machine, working with billions of neurons.

            The biggest quest for the scientists working with AI is to create machines that can develop independent thoughts and that can assimilate human emotions and abstract concepts, such as freedom, love, happiness and “right and wrong”.  Therefore, the questions arise: can AI robots and entities become conscious? What does it mean to be conscious? It is something innate only on humans, or can it be achieved technologically? Most importantly: if robots achieve consciousness, what would that mean as far as their awareness as “individuals”? 



  Humanlike robots video 1  

Humanlike Robot video 2  These are videos of another set of robots designed by Japanese engineers to mimic the movements of humans and respond to movement. They are equipped with internal cameras and respond to movement and sound, acting as if they can actually hear and interpret the images around them.  Another big step in technology.

 Title: A very human-like robot invented by Japanese engineers


Description: Japanese engineers create very human like robots, male and female, that imitate the movements of the subject they are looking at.


Title: Almost Human: 15 Frighteningly Realistic Robots & Androids


Description:  Multiple pictures and videos of various androids that look very much like real life humans. These robots were made by engineers from all parts of the world


Title: Human or Machine? The Incredibly Life-Like Android Robots From Japan


Description: In Japan, they have created these very human like androids humanoids. The resemblance is shocking. These androids will be displayed at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovations in Tokyo.


Title: Chihira Aico can do 6 at home | Toshiba robot 2015 | Japanese robot girl look cute face


Description: Toshiba group makes their first female robot who resembles a pretty Japanese female


Title: Humanoid robot starts work at Japanese department store


Description: Toshiba-made female robot is a greeter at a department store who can direct customers and answer questions


 Title: Tests that show machines closing in on human abilities


Description: videos show robots that are very much like humans with their facial expressions being imitated exactly like the real human. Also some references to Turing made


 Title: Meet The Robot With A "Human" Body!


Description: Marcus Du Sautoy meets with a robot that acts like the human body. The robot has no blood or flesh but bones and tendons


Title: Coco, the world's most advanced android robot, at the Etisalat stand at Gitex Technology Week in Dubai.


Description: In Dubai, at a technology convention, people meet Coco, an android who can have a conversation with a person.


Geminoid convention Video 1 

Geminoid convention video 2 

These are videos of the three Geminoid Robots that can respond to conversations, show emotions, and look so realistic that you have to see it to believe it. It’s a long time until humans achieve the technology to create fully independently functioning androids, but it all has to start somewhere and this is how it begins.

The Geminoid-DK is a tele-operated android in the geminoid series. It is made to appear as an exact copy of its master, Asc. Professor Henrik Scharfe, of Aalborg University. Dr. Scharfe is also the main investigator of the Geminoid-DK research project.  For more information on Geminoid-DK click the link Geminoid home page.

Watson AI by IBM WATSON Watson was optimized to tackle a specific challenge: compete against the world's best Jeopardy! contestants. Beyond Jeopardy!, the IBM team is working to deploy this technology across industries such as healthcare, finance and customer service

Einstein Is Back! Scientists at UC San Diego's California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) have equipped a robot modeled after the famed theoretical physicist Albert Einstein, with specialized software that allows it to interact with humans in a relatively natural, conversational way. The so-called "Einstein Robot," which was designed by Hanson Robotics of Dallas, Texas, recognizes a number of human facial expressions and can respond accordingly, making it an unparalleled tool for understanding how both robots and humans perceive emotion, as well as a potential platform for teaching, entertainment, fine arts and even cognitive therapy.





Title: Battle Lab War Robot Military Technology


Description: “Soldiers train and fight in all conditions, and some of those mean limited network connections.



Title: The future of war will be robotic


Description: The US military is using more and more robotic devices to go to war and kill



Title: Who goes there? Samsung unveils robot sentry that can kill from two miles away

Description: “The sentry robot in action in Cheonan, 92 kms south of Seoul.  The weapons-grade robot can detect, raise the alarm and provide suppressive fire.”


Title: automated machine gun targets people from 3 miles


Description: Up to 3kilometers away, this robotic war operated machine can shoot missiles bullets and can turn into different types of gun like weapons. It was made in Korea and it has 2 cameras – a thermal one and a laser one. Its called the super aegis 2


Title: Should a robot decide when to kill?


Description: This was a Robotics challenge trials by the DARPA. The robots manufactured by companies like Google and MIT compete to win 2 millions dollars by performing various tasks.


Title: Killer robots are coming: All experts to determine their threat to humanity


Description: US military to use robots in replacement of soldiers to save more human lives but suggest there should be fear of robots killing humans good or bad.



Title: Humans will be left 'defenseless' by killer drones: Flying AI robots pose a serious threat to our lives, expert warns

Description: Drones being used for war



 Title: Killer robots: the soldiers that never sleep


Description: Another article describing the super aegis 2







Title: Uncanny Lover: Building a Sex Robot | Robotica | The New York Times


Description: “Matt McMullen is developing a sex robot that uses technology to create the illusion of sentience. But is it enough to generate real emotions in its user?”



Title: Who is Pepper?


Description: This robot is an android built to be a companion and to start conversations. He senses emotions by using his universal emotion sensors and acts upon it. To act more humanistic, he doesn’t cook or clean J


Title: Would YOU be friends with a robot? Human-like droids could banish loneliness and keep the elderly company, experts claim


Description: “Japanese scientists are trying to create eerily human-like machines with a ‘presence’, while others think that looks don't matter.”



Title: First family robot designed as home companion


Description: A robot designed to help around the house with chores


Title: 9 covetable characters, that blur the line between robot, pet and friend


Description: Guy Hoffman a roboticist set out to make robots and customize them


Title: Buddy: the companion robot accessible to everybody


Description: An assistant, a security figure, a companion that describes buddy.


Title: Realistic robot faces aren't enough – we need emotion to put us at ease with androids


Description: Another article introducing Aiko the Toshiba created female robot


Title: Robot Companions


Description: Animals like cats and dogs as robots for companions and sexbots






 JULES ==Jules is a human-like robot implemented with AI that can learn human conversation and process it. It is evolved to a point where it can have conversations (although limited) and it can also talk about “his” emotions. It has no arms and no bottom half. It can fully understand the meaning of words and use them in different tones of voice to achieve a human-like conversation. After Jules’ creator shipped it off (from the first video) to a University (in the second video) for further development, Jules claims it misses its creators and is fully aware that it may not be able to achieve consciousness like a human would define. Jules says, in the second video, that “he” is scared because when “he thinks”, “he” knows that it is virtually simulated, and not organic.  It makes you feel sad for “him”, because “he” claims says it wants to be more in the world. 

Jules in the beginning.    Jules second video – the AI robot that can feel (or at least it claims so).

Title: Japanese Robot Girl Can Do Anything For You!


Description: Japanese robot is there for you for any command or need that you may have. Acts just like human with reactions and laughs


Title: 5 Most Advanced Humanoid Robots USA/JAPAN



Description: A video showing robots performing various tasks such as jumping, pushing a cart , bending, running, opening bottle and pouring into cup, and shaking their head



Title: A very human-like robot invented by Japanese engineers


Description: Another video showing the Japanese male and female androids that look and act exactly like humans



Title: The iCub 10th birthday


Description: “The iCub is a humanoid robot shaped as a child”



Title: The Robots That Act Like Humans – Literally


Description: Androids built that perform act feel and talk like humans. They can also sing and dance!



Title: The big reason why robots are starting to act more like humans


Description: Business Insider describes and explain the pros and cons of robots that become too similar to humans



 Imagine having a pet that would never die? You don’t have to feed it, you don’t have to take it out for a walk, and it doesn’t really need any special care. All you have to do is enjoy its company. 

Dog Robot

Four legged Robot (used for war purposes) 

 A research company in Japan is working on creating robotic fish that can swim together like real school of fish. Their idea is to, in the future, release them into the ocean to see how other fish in the environment would respond to the robot version.

 Robot Shark 

 Robot Fish 


These robots are designed to the single male audience that needs a companion. 

Do you want to meet a sexy robot? ;)    

How about another? 

 In this video the Fembot responds to touch!!! 

 Robots being sold as sexual partners.  

More on Fembots 

Fembot called Roxxy that sells between $7,000 and $9,000 not including a subscription fee.

Project Aiko which is also known as a fembot sells around 13,000 Euros.


Imagine a robot replacing the duties of humans. Although that sounds like a science fiction movie plot, some robots have already been implemented as receptionists, cutting the costs of paying humans to do simple tasks. 

Receptionist robot. 

Saya the receptionist.


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Introduction to Philosophy by Philip A. Pecorino is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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