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Late Medieval Europe


Theme (1): Fourteenth Century Disasters
 Summary
 
What crises occurred in the early 14th century prior to the arrival of the Plague? Precursors to Crisis      Little Ice Age            
What inprovements in trade and commerce had occurred by the end of the 13th century? How could this affect the spread of rat-transmitted disease? From what area was the plague brought into Europe?  Commerce and the Plague: Same as site above: Scroll to Hanseatic League
Origins of Plague: See Plague site below
What caused the plague and how was it carried? What conditions in European towns encouraged the spread of the disease? What were the symptoms of the disease? How did people react to the victims? What response did European society have to the Plague? Over what period of time did the Plague continue to re-visit Europe?

Plague: Click on "The Great Mortality"

"Death Defined" "The Plague"

See map "Plague in Europe" and

"The Plague" by Miller and Orr

Another detailed site about the Plague(source referred by Maggie)

What were the economic consequences of the Plague? What were among the psychological effects?

Economic effects

Flagellants: Scroll to last paragraph

Theme (2): Conflict and War in England and France
 
 
What dynastic developments in England and France preceded the Hundred Years War? How was Aquitane the cause of a dispute leading to war? How were rival claims to the French throne involved? Why did a civil war in France develop? Why was control of Flemish towns also an issue in the war?  Hundred Years War
What did both belligerent dynasties do to motivate support for the war effort? Why was war popular among poor knights? Why among criminals? How did the medieval code of chivalry affect the conduct of the war? What were its limitations? 

See "France" site below
  

Where was the war fought and what kinds of battles were involved? Who gained advantage in the war's early stages and why? What was the role of Joan of Arc in turning the tide of war? What happened to her? 
What was the effect of gunpowder
Joan of Arc

Gunpowder :Scroll to the "Conclusion"
What were the economic consequences of the war upon France? upon England? What was the effect on the wool crop? What was the effect upon England in the early part of the war? what was the effect of the war upon the early development of the English Parliament? Why did a national assembly not develop in France? What was the effect of the war upon the early growth of nationalism in England and France?  France : click on "Results of Hundred Years War."
England: Same site as above
woolen industry: Same site as above
national consciousness: Same site as above

Theme (3): The Decline of the Prestige of the Roman Catholic Church
 
 
How did the Pope fall under the control of the French King at the beginning of the 14th century? what was the effect of the Babylonian Captivity upon the prestige of the Church? What was the effect upon the city of Rome? Under what circumstances was a Pope elected in Rome in 1378? How did the Roman Pope administer the Church? with what result?  Babylonian Captivity

 
How did the existence of two Popes affect European politics? 

Great Schism
Site (2)

What argument did Marsiglio of Padua, the rector of the University of Paris put forward in "Defensor Pacis"? What was the Pope's reaction? What arguments did John Wyclif, English theologian, have? What was the role of John Hus, rector of the University of Prague, in the religious controversy? Site (1) Click "Defensor Pacis Conclusions"
Pope's reaction: Same site as above: Click "Condemnation of Marsiglio"
John Wyclif: Site (1)                 Site (2) 
Jan Hus
What did the Council of Pisa do in 1409? with what result?  What did the Council of Constance (1414-1418) do? with what result? How did Pope Martin V, appointed by the council, react to the Consiliar Movement? 

Council of Constance

Pope Martin V

Theme (4): Social and Cultural Developments in the Fourteenth Century
 
    
What was the extent of crime among the aristocracy in the 14th century? In this context, what does the Robin Hood legend represent? Fur-collar crime: Site (1)Scroll to "Results of Hundred Years War "  
Robin Hood legend: See site (1) above
Why did the frequency of peasant revolts increase in the 14th century? What form did they take?
What was the usual aristocratic reaction? What particular circumstances in England led to the Peasants' Revolt there? What was the outcome?

peasant revolts:   Site (1):Scroll to last paragraph: click on "Jacquerie"

     Site (2)

What is meant by the vernacular? Why is literature in the vernacular significant? Who was the great Italian writer of the time? the English writer? Vernacular
Dante:        Chaucer: Canterbury Tales ;English language; French language

 

European Maps of the Middle Ages                   Maps of Europe AD1000:2000

Costumes

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