Professor Wilson Summerí07 Intro to Sociology Final Pool
Directions: Select the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question, then fill that letter in on your scantron sheet.
1) A group's customary social arrangements that make life predictable are called ________.
A) differential association B) social order
C) social integration D) inner containments
2) According to Control Theory, inner controls are more effective when:
A) we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.
B) we are able to reject negative labels and neutralize our deviance.
C) we are members of the middle or upper classes.
D) we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society.
3) Researchers have confirmed that delinquents are more likely to come from:
A) families that are living in poverty.
B) regions with large minority group populations.
C) urban areashorizontalprimarily on the east or west coast.
D) families that are involved in crime that tends to set their children on a law breaking path.
4) The murder of Matthew Shepard in Laramie, WY was classified a hate crime because:
A) Shepard was gay.
B) Shepard was a college student.
C) the person who killed Shepard was a Neo-Nazi.
D) the crime occurred at a Pro-Life rally by a Pro-Choice fanatic.
5) According to the author of your textbook, homelessness and mental illness are ________.
A) rebellious acts by individuals B) reciprocal
C) not related to each other D) survival strategies
6) During World War II, many Japanese pilots committed suicide by crashing their planes loaded with explosives into U.S. warships. This act of suicide was accorded high praise by the Japanese and these pilots where considered heroic warriors. This bestowing of honor and praise would be an example of ________.
A) shaming B) a degradation ceremony
C) a positive sanction D) a negative sanction
7) The major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance is that:
A) psychological explanations are based on genetic predispositions while sociological explanations concentrate on body types and physical differences.
B) sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual and psychological explanations address conditions within the individual.
C) sociological explanations are more accurate in explaining the true cause of crime.
D) only psychological explanations are accepted by the medical community.
8) Of the following, which characteristic is not a violation of the norms of ability?
A) an unsightly blemish or birthmark B) deafness
C) blindness D) mental illness
9) According to Table 6.1, "How People Match Their Goals to Their Means," found on page 144, the two modes of adaptation that are not motivated by high salaries and financial success are ________ and ________.
A) retreatism; innovation B) conformity; ritualism
C) innovation; conformity D) ritualism; retreatism
10) Based on Figure 6.2 "How Much Is Enough? The Explosion in the Number of U.S. Prisoners," found on page 150, which of the following statements best summarizes the graph?
A) The prison population in the United States has fluctuated considerably since 1970 experiencing periods of unprecedented growth and periods of decline.
B) There is no significant pattern to explain the prison population growth in the United States.
C) The prison population in the United States has remained stable since 1970.
D) The prison population has risen since 1970, experiencing rapid growth between 1980 and 2000.
11) The relativity of deviance is best explained by the ________ perspective.
A) symbolic interactionist B) neo-conflict
C) conflict D) structural functionalist
12) In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
A) strategies of justification B) labeling
C) ideologies D) techniques of neutralization
13) When the rich and powerful commit serious corporate violations that may result in the death of employees due to negligence and even blatant violation of safety codes, those responsible are usually brought to justice by ________.
A) their stockholders B) the families of those victimized
C) administrative agencies D) the criminal justice system
14) Based on Figure 6.4, "Executions in the United States," found on page 152, which statement is most correct?
A) The north and midwest have the highest number of executions.
B) The use of the death penalty is evenly distributed based on population density.
C) All states have the death penalty, but not all states use it.
D) States which support and use the death penalty are clustered in the South.
15) Which statement is least accurate regarding deviance and conformity?
A) The primary factor that determines if a behavior is deviant is the act itself.
B) What is deviant to one social group may be considered normal to another.
C) Deviance is a violation of social norms.
D) Society often conveys conflicting messages of what constitutes deviance.
16) Cloward and Ohlin note that different ________ encourage different types of crimes.
A) geographic location B) opportunity structures
C) racial affiliation D) informal economic systems
17) Sometimes people become even more deviant in response to being labeled as deviant. This occurs because ________.
A) deviance is functional for the society
B) the deviance becomes trivialized
C) the label becomes a part of the person's self-concept
D) some people are naturally deviant
18) Brad has developed an "excess of definitions" that support his rationalization to sell marijuana in his dormitory. He feels marijuana is "a safe drug," considers himself as only providing his fellow students a product they demand, and saves money in the process for his own marijuana needs. Brad's behavior can best be explained by which theory of deviance?
A) Personality Theory
B) Labeling Theory
C) Social Control Theory
D) The Theory of Differential Association
19) One measure of the humanity is how the society treats its deviants. An examination of prisons in the U.S. today would highlight that:
A) the U.S. is the most humane society in the world.
B) prisons are a last resort in dealing with deviants.
C) they are used as warehouses for the unwanted.
D) U.S. prisons emphasize prisoner rehabilitation.
20) Based on their relationship to the sociological perspective that best applies to them, which of the following theories of deviance least belongs with the other three?
A) Body Type Theories
B) The Theory of Differential Association
C) The XYY Chromosome Theory
D) Theories of Intelligence
21) According to sociologist Martin Jankowski, one of the reasons boys in the urban areas of the U.S. were motivated to join gangs was to ________.
A) help the community B) seek a substitute family
C) escape broken homes D) get back at their parents
22) Sociologist Howard S. Becker notes that deviance is defined:
A) by the government.
B) by how common the behavior is among members of society.
C) by the reaction of others to the behavior.
D) by the nature of the behavior.
23) Biological explanations for deviance focus on ________, inborn tendencies of individuals to commit deviant acts.
A) inadequate socialization B) genetic predispositions
C) instinctual predispositions D) neurological irregularities
24) The major difference between white collar crime and street crime is that:
A) street crime is synonymous with victimless crime.
B) white collar crime and street crime and mutually exclusive meaning no one ever commits both.
C) white collar crime is an act committed in the course of a legitimate occupation.
D) white collar crime is always a corporate act and street crime an individual act.
25) The main idea of control theory is that most people have strong desires to be deviant, but two systems work against their motivation to deviate. These two systems are termed ________.
A) the courts and prisons
B) outer and formal controls
C) inner and outer controls
D) conscience and the criminal justice system
26) In the opening passage that described the differences between the selected Ethiopian family and American family, the differences could best be explained by:
A) the difference in life chances to which each family was exposed.
B) the climate and environmental differences between Ethiopia and the United States.
C) the governments that control each nation.
D) the cultural differences between Ethiopians and Americans.
27) The American sociologist who studied race relations in the post-Civil War South who characterized the entire white South as "an armed camp to keep Negroes in slavery and to kill the black rebel" was ________.
A) W.E.B. DuBois B) Benjamin Quarles
C) George Washington Carver D) Booker T. Washington
28) If a person had lived during Karl Marx's lifetime and had been a laborer at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would have considered that person a member of the ________.
A) bourgeois B) lumpen-proletarian
C) middle class D) proletariat
29) The theory of ________ focuses on how the countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world because of their more advanced economic systems.
A) manifest destiny B) socialism
C) colonialism D) communism
30) The Maquiladoras are:
A) assembly-for-export factories along the Mexican border.
B) death squads that hunt and kill the beggar children of Brazil.
C) Mexican migrant workers who cross the border to pick crops in the U.S.A.
D) elite members of Mexico's newly emerging industrial capitalists.
31) According to world system theory, England, one of the nations in which industrial capitalism first developed, is a ________ nation.
A) semiperiphery B) periphery
C) semi-industrializing D) core
32) When the United Fruit Company controlled national and local politics in Central America, its interests were protected by:
A) a detail of United States Marines waiting off shore.
B) the militia of the respective nations which it controlled.
C) a treaty between the respective Central American nation and U.S. government.
D) a large insurance policy with Lloyds of London.
33) Which of the following statement is least true regarding the concept of ideology versus force as a means to maintain stratification?
A) The divine right of kings was an ideology used by nobility and clergy with great effect.
B) Medieval Europe provides a prime example of how ideology maintains stratification.
C) Coercion is as effective as ideology, but it is expensive and creates false consciousness.
D) Withholding information "in the interest of national security" is a technique democracies use to maintain stratification.
34) According to ________, the universality of stratification can be explained by the necessity to motivate the most qualified people to fill the more important and demanding positions in a society.
A) Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer B) Karl Marx and Max Weber
C) C. Wright Mills and Talcott Parsons D) Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore
35) A major means by which neocolonialists maintain global stratification is:
A) controlling a country's mass media.
B) debt, with ever mounting interest.
C) coercion by using military occupation.
D) bribing a country's government officials.
36) An examination of Figure 7.2 "Global Stratification: Income of the World's Nations," found on pages 174-175, reveals that the nations with the lowest income per person are clustered in the continent of ________.
A) Europe B) South America
C) Asia D) Africa
37) Companies that operate across many national boundaries which helps the Most Industrialized Nations maintain global dominance are referred to as ________.
A) multinational corporations B) bureaucracies
C) interlocking directorates D) oligarchies
38) In ancient Greece and Rome slavery was most often based on three factors. Which of the following was not one of the three major factors?
A) war B) debt C) race D) crime
39) Two basic reasons why poor nations remain at the bottom of the world stratification order are:
A) the competition between socialism and capitalism.
B) world-wide recession and international terrorism.
C) the existence of neocolonialism and the influence of multinational corporations.
D) the legacy of war and the persistence of poverty.
40) According to Gaetano Mosca, every society is stratified by ________ to ensure that society's work gets done.
A) wealth B) gender C) prestige D) power
41) The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is called ________.
A) structure B) social stratification
C) social networking D) diversification
42) Economist ________ proposed that the Least Industrialized Nations were held back from developing a more productive economy by a culture of poverty.
A) J. Pierpont Morgan B) Mortimer James
C) Stanley Greenspan D) John Kenneth Galbraith
43) In the caste system, anyone who becomes contaminated by having contact with members of a caste below them must follow a washing ritual to restore purity called ________.
A) ablution B) compurgation C) confession D) manifestation
44) In World Systems Theory, most of Africa and Asia are are comprised of ________ nations because these nations were left out of the development of industrial capitalism.
A) semiperiphery B) core C) periphery D) external area
45) Workers in the Maquiladoras plants along the United States and Mexican border make ten dollars a day which is only a fraction of what American workers were paid to do the same work. It is unlikely, however, that the Mexican workers will go on strike to demand better wages because:
A) workers in other nations are eager to do the work for only a dollar or two a day.
B) unions are outlawed in Mexico and do not exist.
C) the Mexican government will use the military to squash any type of work stoppage.
D) the corporate leaders have a long-term contract with the workers.
46) Gerhard Lenski argues that the the functionalist view of stratification applies only to societies that:
A) are capitalistic.
B) are socialistic.
C) only have minimal resources without accumulated wealth.
D) have a surplus of resources and accumulate wealth.
47) Stratification within the former Soviet Union was largely a function of:
A) inherited wealth.
B) political position within the Communist Party.
C) ownership of the means of production.
D) the elimination of all class distinctions.
48) Which statement is least true of social stratification in either Great Britain or the former Soviet Union?
A) Because of its socialistic overtones there were few economic differences between the classes in the former Soviet Union.
B) Great Britain's class system is divided into a lower, middle, and upper class.
C) In the former Soviet Union, socialism was seen as an intermediate step between capitalism and communism.
D) In Great Britain, one's class can be immediately distinguished by someone's accent.
49) Historian Gerda Lerner notes that generally, the first people enslaved were ________.
A) young men B) conquered warriors
C) children D) women
50) Based on Table 7.2, "Distribution of the World's Land and Population," found on page 172, the category of nations that faces the greatest challenge to provide for its people because of the imbalance between the percentage of land it occupies and the percentage of the world population it contains is the ________.
A) Middle-Income Nations B) Least Industrialized Nations
C) Second World Nations D) Industrializing Nations
51) The social class most shaped by education is the ________.
A) lower middle class B) upper middle class
C) working class D) capitalist class
52) Which statement best reflects the reality of income inequality in the United States over the past 60 years?
A) Incomes of the poor have increased while the incomes of the rich have declined.
B) Incomes of the poor have declined while the incomes of the rich have increased.
C) The overall levels of income inequality have fluctuated greatly.
D) Anti-poverty programs have greatly reduced income inequality in the U.S.A.
53) After spending considerable time observing the way people on welfare lived, the author of your textbook concludes that poverty is the result of:
A) the personal characteristics of the poor.
B) the structural characteristics of a society.
C) both structural and personal characteristics.
D) neither structural nor personal characteristics.
54) A trend in U.S. poverty whereby poor families have become increasingly headed by women is called the ________.
A) sexualization of society B) patriarchial society
C) feminization of poverty D) theory of global genderization
55) After viewing Figure 8.5 "The U.S. Social Class Ladder," found on page 195, which of the following conclusions is least consistent with the information and data presented?
A) The social class breakdown is rather evenly divided between the top three classes and bottom three classes based on percentage of population they contain.
B) Twenty percent of Americans qualify as being either working poor, unemployed, underemployed, or on welfare.
C) Education serves as a major factor in determining every class category.
D) With the exception of the highest and lowest classes, the remaining four social classes are evenly divided.
56) Numerically, most of the poor in the United States are ________.
A) African American B) Native American
C) Latino D) white
57) John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty and must go on welfare. The cause of John's poverty is:
A) his unwillingness to work.
B) that he is not intelligent enough to get a better job.
C) change in John's value system.
D) change in the social structure.
58) About one out of every six white children live in poverty as well as one out of three Latino and African American children. Combined with a half million Asian American and 300,000 Native American children in poverty, this adds up to a total of approximately ________ children living in poverty in the United States.
A) 11 million B) 19 million C) 8 million D) 15 million
59) Which statement regarding mental health and social inequality is least true?
A) There is a two-tier system of mental health care based on the ability to pay.
B) It is more difficult for the poor to get into mental hospitals.
C) "Medicinal straitjackets" are more commonly used to "treat" the poor.
D) The poor are more likely to undergo "talk therapy" than the rich.
60) Social ________ is a large category of people who share many similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.
A) class B) interaction C) clan D) structure
61) The three major predictors of whether or not Americans are poor are their race or ethnicity, ________, and ________.
A) the geographic location where they live; level of education
B) the geographic location where they live; age
C) level of education; the sex of the head of the household
D) the number of children in the family; the geographic location where they live
62) When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to:
A) only the income made from a person's occupation.
B) only the property that a person owns.
C) both property owned and income made by one person.
D) income after state and federal taxes have been withheld.
63) Based on the author's account of the relationship between physical health and social class, which of the following statements would be most accurate?
A) There is a positive relationship between social class and physical health.
B) There is no observable relationship between social class and physical health.
C) Social class is only related to physical health among minorities.
D) There is an inverse relationship between social class and physical health.
64) An examination of Figure 8.3 "Growing Inequality: The Percentage of the Nation's Income Received by Each Fifth of U.S. Families Since World War II," found on page 188, shows that:
A) people in the fourth fifth of the nation have remained the most constant in the percentage of income received since 1945.
B) there is a rising middle class that has has achieved a greater percentage of the national income since 1960.
C) there have been sharp increases in the percentage of income by the top fifth of Americans since 1945.
D) people in the bottom fifth of the nation's income earned a higher percentage of the nation's income in 2000 than they did in 1945.
65) The measure of poverty to qualify as being below the poverty line is based on the belief that poor people spend about one-third of their income on food. In reality, poor people actually spend about ________ of their incomes on food.
A) 40 percent B) 20 percent C) 50 percent D) 10 percent
66) A profile of their personal qualities would reveal that most U.S. presidents come from a group of:
A) millionaire white men from old money families.
B) middle class white men.
C) men with a diversified background who were of European descent.
D) working Americans with great ambition.
67) Based on Figure 8.1 "Distribution of Wealth in America," on page 187, it can be concluded that:
A) a very small percentage of Americans control the majority of the assets.
B) poverty is limited to 32 percent of all Americans.
C) there is a rising middle class.
D) wealth is evenly distributed among all Americans.
68) In addition to structural changes in the economic system, Higgenbothan and Weber found that women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative position in Memphis had all been:
A) encouraged by their parents to get an education.
B) encouraged by their husbands to return to school.
C) the eldest child in the family.
D) in the top five percent of their graduating class.
69) If someone was confined to a "medicinal straitjacket," they would probably be:
A) someone who has overdosed on tranquilizing drugs.
B) a middle-class patient who is trying to harm himself.
C) a homeless patient with symptoms of mental illness.
D) a disturbed upper class patient.
70) Joseph belongs to a church in which worship services are quietly subdued and accompanied by soft organ music. Joseph is least likely to be a member of the ________ classes.
A) lower B) capitalist C) middle D) upper middle
71) According to ________ theorists, the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain an army of reserve workers.
A) symbolic interactionist B) structural
C) functionalist D) conflict
72) Updating Weber, Gilbert and Kahl developed a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries. In addition to the criteria of wealth, power and prestige, they included ________ in their model.
A) reputation B) education
C) lineage D) church affiliation
73) From the 1930s until now, sociologists have found that the mental health of the lower classes is worse than that of the higher classes. One well-supported explanation for these differences is that the poor:
A) do not take care of their mental health needs.
B) are not motivated to stay mentally healthy.
C) experience greater stress in their lives.
D) are more likely to inherit mental disorders.
74) C. Wright Mills coined the term ________ to refer to the collection of people who make the big decisions in U.S. society.
A) power elite B) corporate class C) leisure class D) upper class
75) Sally and Tom live in the rural South and their income is below the poverty level. Compared to a working couple living in an urban area, it is likely that Sally and Tom are ________ than the urban couple.
A) less skilled and less educated B) cohabiting and have more children
C) more skilled and more educated D) more likely to be on welfare