Intro to Sociology Summer 2007
Midterm Exam Question Pool.
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Leo is developing a profile of first generation Italian-Americans who lived in New York City in the 1920s. He is examining the jobs they held, their income, level of education, gender, age, and how long they were in America before becoming citizens. Sociologically, Leo is examining the ________ of the individuals in his study. 1) _______
A) stratification levels B) social class differences
C) social imperative D) social location
2) Frank is examining the events that have occurred over the past 50 years and how these events have affected his own life. By doing so, Frank is engaged in ________. 2) _______
A) the sociological imagination B) the social imperative
C) determinism D) positivism
3) Sociologists emphasize the notion that our thinking and motivation are largely determined by ________. 3) _______
A) influences drawn from our life experiences
B) our biologically inherited genetic structure
C) our individual personalities
D) our natural born instincts
4) How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions? 4) _______
A) Marx was a theoretical sociologist and Weber strictly an applied sociologist.
B) Weber addressed social structure which Marx totally ignored.
C) Weber failed to recognize class differences in society.
D) Marx believed economics was the central force of social change and Weber claimed it was religion.
5) Max Weber stressed the notion that sociological research should be "value free." This means that sociologists should not: 5) _______
A) let personal values affect their research.
B) receive pay for their research work.
C) be social critics.
D) study social values.
6) The underlying principle of symbolic interactionism is: 6) _______
A) that behavior is controlled by factors beyond one's control.
B) how one's behavior depends on the way they define themselves and others.
C) how society uses sanctions to control behavior.
D) based on the premise that a history of man is a history of class conflict.
7) Many African Americans feel the flag for the Confederate States of America, "the stars and bars", is a sign of racial hatred. States rights advocates view the same flag as being "heritage, not hatred." Such a difference of opinion over the exact same material object is an illustration of which sociological perspective? 7) _______
A) Structural Analysis B) Conflict Theory
C) Functional Analysis D) Symbolic Interactionism
8) Cynthia is a sociologist employed at Computer Technology, Inc., developing "user-centered designs." She would be considered a[n] ________ sociologist. 8) _______
A) clinical B) reformist
C) basic or pure D) applied
9) Viewing society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in ________. 9) _______
A) structural functionalism B) functional analysis
C) symbolic interactionism D) conflict theory
10) While the intended consequence of attending college is to obtain an education to prepare for entry into the job market, college also provides a "mate selection market" wherein students may meet prospective marriage partners. This market represents what Merton would describe as a ________. 10) ______
A) manifest function B) latent function
C) manifest dysfunction D) latent dysfunction
11) The argument made by feminists that men and women should have equal rights and that the emphasis of male superiority or patriarchy by society is wrong falls under the perspective most aligned with ________. 11) ______
A) structural analysis B) conflict theory
C) functional analysis D) symbolic interactionism
12) Of the following, which theoretical perspective in sociology least qualifies as an example of macro-level analysis? 12) ______
A) conflict theory B) structural functionalism
C) functional analysis D) symbolic interactionism
13) Meg is developing a research proposal addressing the affects of poverty on life expectancy. She is using the table developed by the Office of Administration to determine if someone qualifies as being in poverty. Her effort to provide a precise way to measure the concept of poverty is an example of: 13) ______
A) selecting the proper research method.
B) formulating a hypothesis.
C) developing an operational definition.
D) developing a correlation between income and life expectancy.
14) Anthony is conducting experimental research on the effects of an educational therapy program and the conflict handling skills of inmates. He has established two groups. Group A will receive a special conflict handling therapy program. Group B will go about their routine without receiving the therapy or a therapy substitute. Group B is referred to as the ________. 14) ______
A) control group B) treatment group
C) reference group D) placebo group
15) In a random sample: 15) ______
A) the participants in the study are picked from volunteers.
B) participants in the study are picked at the convenience of the researcher.
C) there is no consistent method of choosing the participants in the study.
D) everyone in the population has the same chance of being included in the study.
16) Marie is looking forward to conducting a research project on the level of satisfaction experienced by students in relation to the services the university provides. Her university has over 20,000 undergraduate students, but Marie plans to only have 2,000 students in her sample. She wants to select them scientifically so that each student has an equal chance of being chosen and wants to have the same percentage of students in her sample based on sex, race, class standing, and major as there are in the university's overall population. Marie is attempting to collect ________. 16) ______
A) a simple random sample
B) a stratified random sample
C) a complex random sample
D) an unbiased convenience sample
17) When sociologists refer to the culture within us, they are referring to: 17) ______
A) the instinctual abilities we have to form social bonds and perpetuate the species.
B) the learned and shared ways of believing and doing that are a part of our behavior.
C) the cultural characteristics passed on through heredity.
D) man's ability to engage in cognitive thought processes and analyze social events.
18) Marshall is examining the culture of the Lenape Indians. He is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape culture fit together including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs. By doing so, Marshall is practicing ________. 18) ______
A) universalism B) cultural relativism
C) ethnocentrism D) cultural leveling
19) Margie is on an educational trip to a village in Africa. One evening her African hosts served a stew containing giant red ants and other insects. After dinner, Margie asked what was in the delicious stew she just enjoyed. When her host told her, Margie became ill and returned to her hut. Margie has just experienced ________. 19) ______
A) ethnocentrism B) culture shock
C) a rite of passage D) the relativist fallacy
20) Shaking one's head left and right to mean "no" and up and down to mean "yes" are examples of ________. 20) ______
A) impression management B) sanctions
C) selectivity D) gestures
21) Which of the following statements is least true about symbolic culture? 21) ______
A) Symbolic culture is another name for nonmaterial culture.
B) Symbolic culture includes tools and the technology to use them.
C) The central component of symbolic culture is the symbols that people use.
D) A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and communicate.
22) Julia is writing a note to one of her classmates. In the note she uses the emoticon :.) and adds OTF to the message. Based on these two expressions, what conclusion can we reach about the content of her note? 22) ______
A) Julia was laughing so hysterically she had tears in her eyes and was rolling on the floor.
B) Julia was explaining to her friend that "older teens fail" because of their reckless behavior.
C) Julia asked her friend to accompany her to the Sadie Hawkins Dance being held this Friday.
D) Julia was upset with her friend and encouraged her to change her behavior.
23) Jamaican women prefer portly men with rounded mid-sections while American women prefer men who have triangular physiques, big shoulders, and thin waist lines. This difference in what is socially desirable or undesirable is an example of differences in ________. 23) ______
A) mores B) sanctions C) norms D) values
24) After having successfully negotiated an important business contract with a major client, Phil's boss congratulated him and promised him a significant pay raise. In this situation, Phil has received what sociologists call a ________. 24) ______
A) positive sanction B) positive folkway
C) positive value D) positive emoticon
25) Mark and Sally went walking in the park. Both of them were wearing nothing on the upper half of their bodies. Mark would be violating a ________, Sally would be violating a ________. 25) ______
A) folkway; more B) more; taboo
C) more; folkway D) folkway; taboo
26) Jacob has just been banished from his community with the stipulation he is never to be return. In view of this, it is most likely that Jacob has: 26) ______
A) been on a moral holiday.
B) violated a folkway.
C) just received an informal negative sanction.
D) engaged in a behavior considered as being a taboo.
27) In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith would represent a ________. 27) ______
A) deviant culture B) counterculture
C) rival culture D) subculture
28) Which statement is least true of subcultures? 28) ______
A) They include ethnic groups and religious groups.
B) They are a world within the larger world of dominant culture.
C) They include cab drivers, construction workers, and sociologists.
D) They are seldom found in American society.
29) Blossom is a prostitute in the inner city. Digger is a member of the Devil's Disciples and an avid Satan worshipper. In view of this, which statement is most correct regarding Blossom and Digger? 29) ______
A) Both Blossom and Digger belong to subcultures.
B) Blossom belongs to a subculture and Digger belongs to a counterculture.
C) Blossom belongs to a counterculture and Digger belongs to a subculture.
D) Both Blossom and Digger belong to countercultures.
30) A society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups would be best described as being ________. 30) ______
A) a noncentrist society B) a society of assimilation
C) a centrist society D) a pluralistic society
31) Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on the value of ________. 31) ______
A) freedom B) humanitarianism
C) efficiency D) achievement
32) The coexistence of such values as democracy and equality alongside of sexism and group superiority illustrates the condition of ________. 32) ______
A) value strain B) value contradiction
C) value clusters D) value inconsistency
33) When social values contradict one another, such contradictions can serve as a source of ________. 33) ______
A) social consensus B) social norms
C) social change D) social support
34) Americans are expected to go far in school, work hard and attain a high level of material comfort as a demonstration of success. The interrelated values of education, hard work and success would be an example of ________. 34) ______
A) value contradictions B) a value cluster
C) emergent values D) a change in the society's values
35) In the United States, there is a focus on leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, feeling young, and concern for the environment. This emerging value cluster is a response to fundamental changes in ________. 35) ______
A) the nonmaterial culture B) people's focus on individualism
C) the economic structure D) people's norms
36) Many Americans are sharply divided between the ideologies of the pro-choice and pro-life movements. Some pro-life advocates have engaged in the murder of doctors working in family planning centers and bombing these centers. Such a difference in ideologies is best described as an example of ________. 36) ______
A) moral selectivity B) culture wars
C) role conflict D) value contradictions
37) The American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution is ________. 37) ______
A) freedom B) individualism
C) equality D) progress
38) Which statement is least true of values? 38) ______
A) Values are distinct, independent units that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
B) Not all values fall into neat, integrated packages.
C) Americans have a tendency to embrace one set of values more than others.
D) Some values cluster together to form a larger whole.
39) Although computers were well established by the 1990s as efficient, cost effective, and user friendly many people refused to learn how to use them or to adapt to the emerging technology. This was an example of what William Ogburn would refer to as ________. 39) ______
A) cultural wars B) cultural lag
C) cultural leveling D) cultural diffusion
40) A group's nonmaterial culture is primarily shaped by ________, because, as this aspect of society changes, so do the ways people think and relate to one another. 40) ______
A) economics B) education C) religion D) technology
41) According to JoEllen Shively, Native Americans enjoy cowboy movies and novels featuring cowboys. When watching westerns they identify with the cowboys rather than the indians. The reason for this is that: 41) ______
A) the cowboys express the Native American values of bravery, autonomy, and toughness.
B) there are virtually no Native Americans left in the West.
C) the Native Americans are always the loser in the movies and book plots.
D) cowboys are the symbol of the West.
42) In a four square block section of midtown Manhattan, it is possible to purchase a bagel with cream cheese, eat stir-fried vegetables prepared in a wok, or dine on raw fish in a sushi bar. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of: ________. 42) ______
A) cultural diffusion B) cultural innovation
C) cultural absolutism D) cultural bridging
43) In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term, ________, to describe this process. 43) ______
A) cultural adaptation B) cultural bridging
C) cultural leveling D) cultural dissolution
44) Recently, Debbie went on a world tour. When she came back from her tour, she told her friends that she was able to stop at a McDonalds and order a Big Mac in every major city she visited. Her ability to have a Big Mac in all the major cities is an example of ________. 44) ______
A) cultural innovation B) cultural leveling
C) cultural bridging D) cultural dissolution
45) The case of Oskar and Jack, the two identical twins who were raised separately, provided evidence that: 45) ______
A) identical twins will group up sharing similar interests and needs.
B) one's orientation to life is largely the result of environment.
C) environment has little affect on a child's system of moral values.
D) heredity is the fundamental predictor of behavior.
46) Sally's neighborhood, the school she attends, the church to which she belongs, her parents, and friends, would best be classified as Sally's ________. 46) ______
A) virtual community B) looking glass self
C) social environment D) sphere of influence
47) Studies of isolated and institutionalized children point out the importance of ________ in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted. 47) ______
A) intimate early social interaction B) discipline
C) education D) biological factors
48) The primary difference in the case studies of Isabelle and that of Genie was that: 48) ______
A) Genie failed to benefit significantly from the intensive training she received.
B) Isabelle was not discovered until her teenage years and Genie was discovered as a toddler.
C) Isabelle was mentally impaired and Genie had a normal IQ.
D) Genie did not receive the necessary remedial training she needed to socially develop.
49) According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept: 49) ______
A) by interpreting how others think about us.
B) by interpreting our feelings about ourselves.
C) by inheriting genetic characteristics from our parents.
D) by learning self-discipline.
50) Based on their research with monkeys, Harry and Margaret Harlow concluded that: 50) ______
A) infant-mother bonding is the result of intimate physical contact.
B) animal intelligence is related to diet.
C) providing food (nursing) is the most important aspect of nurturing.
D) monkeys are unable to function when placed in isolation.
51) Mattie is a new sociology professor at the local college. During her first lecture, she noticed that some students were yawning. Based on her interpretation of the students yawning, Mattie has decided she is a boring teacher. This is an example of the process referred to as ________. 51) ______
A) "taking the role of significant others"
C) "looking-glass self"
52) Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Mead would suggest that the coach is one of Bob's ________. 52) ______
A) primary group members B) generalized others
C) reference group members D) significant others
53) Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage. 53) ______
A) imitation B) game C) generalized D) play
54) When an individual takes into consideration how other people think of them and take the role of "the group as a whole" they are engaged in what Mead would refer to as ________. 54) ______
A) the reference group B) the generalized other
C) self esteem D) the significant other
55) Which statement is least true of role-taking behavior as developed by George Herbert Mead? 55) ______
A) Mead used the term "looking glass self" to indicate the self as subject.
B) The role-taking behavior of children is developed in a three stage process.
C) The theory was based on symbolic interactionism.
D) Younger children have less ability to visualize the role of others than older children.
56) Morris is 3 years of age and is just beginning to talk. He can count to 10 but is not altogether sure what numbers actually mean. According to Piaget, Morris is in the ________ stage. 56) ______
A) sensorimotor B) formal operational
C) preoperational D) concrete operational
57) The basic premise of Piaget's model of development that has remained unchanged is that: 57) ______
A) intelligence is related to development.
B) social stratification is a major influence on moral development.
C) children begin with the concrete and move to the abstract.
D) development is a product a society's technology.
58) Loretta is looking forward to a homecoming weekend that includes attending several parties, participating in the homecoming parade, and going to the game with her sorority sisters. Loretta is also seriously behind in her studies and has two major exams on Monday. Freud would say that Loretta is being driven by her ________. 58) ______
A) superego B) id C) ego D) libido
59) The "society within us" is shaped by ________. 59) ______
A) personality B) heredity
C) cultural standards D) intellect
60) Reginald is in a devilish mood and thinks it would be fun to run naked down the street. But, suddenly he begins to think of the consequences that might happen to him. He wonders whether he would be sent to jail and knows that he might feel embarrassed, especially if his friends found out. Reginald is using his ________ as a way to determine his behavior. 60) ______
A) ego B) social mirror
C) logic D) common sense
61) As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. This is an example of ________. 61) ______
A) the hidden curriculum B) gender tracking
C) resocialization D) gender socialization
62) Leo, Matthew, Ryan, Meg, Isabelle, and Francis have progressed through elementary school together, are all in the middle school orchestra, and belong to many of the same after school activities. Together, they constitute a/an ________. 62) ______
A) social group B) peer group
C) category D) aggregate
63) The difference in the goals of working class parents and middle class parents in rearing their children was found by Kohn and Schooler to be most related to ________. 63) ______
A) opportunities presented in the life course
B) the parents' income
C) the family's neighborhood
D) the degree of individual freedom the parents had on their jobs
64) The popular television show Xena: Princess Warrior portrays the super dominate heroine, Xena, overcoming all obstacles, defeating all foes, including men. Shows like Xena represent: 64) ______
A) a need for the media to expand their markets to more women.
B) the compliance of the media with recent court decisions.
C) the tend for breaking gender stereotypes by the media.
D) the lack of popular male heroes in today's world.
65) Sally's family lives in a more affluent neighborhood and has lived there for many years. It is likely that when Sally is playing a few blocks from home but in the same neighborhood that: 65) ______
A) Sally will receive more supervision than if she lived in a poor neighborhood.
B) Sally has escaped her parents' sphere of influence.
C) Sally will have more freedom to do what she wants.
D) there will be no difference in the degree of supervision Sally receives.
66) April spends over 40 hours a week in day care because both her parents hold full-time, high paying professional positions. Hope spends about 15 hours a week in day care because her mother only works part-time as a teachers' aide and her father holds a middle-management position in the local mill. Based upon the studies by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, what can one expect of the relationship April has with her mother compared to that of Hope? 66) ______
A) Both April and Hope would develop weaker bonds with their mother because of the daycare experience.
B) Both April and Hope would develop string bonds with their mother because of the daycare experience.
C) April has a weaker bond with her mother than Hope.
D) April has a stronger bond with her mother than Hope.
67) Fred has applied for the position of head football coach in the Middle School. Although the Board of Education hasn't announced its decision yet on who will receive the position, Fred is already developing plays, looking at methods to motivate his players, and ways to get the student body behind the team. Fred is experiencing ________. 67) ______
A) a new master status B) resocialization
C) development of a self-concept D) anticipatory socialization
68) As a child's experience with agents of socialization broaden, the influence of the family ________. 68) ______
A) remains the same B) increases
C) lessens D) has no consistent change
69) The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors is called ________. 69) ______
A) the "looking-glass self" B) anticipatory socialization
C) resocialization D) socialization
70) Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution? 70) ______
A) a military boot camp B) marriage
C) baseball D) a university
71) Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to strip naked and roll in a tub of mud. This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed ________. 71) ______
A) a degradation ceremony
B) anticipatory socialization
C) acquiring a personal identity kit
D) learning conformity
72) Of the following factors, the one that is most significant in determining what constitutes childhood is ________. 72) ______
A) the culture of a society
B) the child's parents
C) the age of a child
D) the responsibilities a child is given
73) In the opening passage, the author recalls his experience as he joined the band of wine-drinking, inner-city men in Washington, DC. Based on this experience, which statement best summarizes the experience of the author? 73) ______
A) He concluded homeless men have no system of values, norms, or beliefs.
B) The author observed that street men are influenced by the norms and beliefs of society.
C) The author was using his sociological imagination by mingling with the homeless.
D) He was lost in the inner city environment with little hope of surviving the evening.
74) Liebow and Anderson studied how street corner men in Washington, D.C. coped with life on a day-to-day basis. This represents an example of ________. 74) ______
A) symbolic interactionism B) microsociology
C) exchange theory D) macrosociology
75) The variable of social structure that lays the broadest framework of social location is ________. 75) ______
A) race B) status C) social class D) culture
76) Timothy is an African American, a student, member of the church choir, and quarterback on the university football team. Sociologists would consider this his ________. 76) ______
A) status set B) social class
C) social categories D) social roles
77) Which of the following statements is least true of an ascribed status? 77) ______
A) Certain ascribed statuses can be chosen.
B) Race, ethnicity, and social class at birth are example of ascribed status.
C) An ascribed status is involuntary.
D) Ascribed statuses provide guidelines for how we are to act and feel.
78) Leo is a college graduate, cello teacher, and a member of Who's Who Among Students in American Colleges and Universities. This would be an example of ________. 78) ______
A) his social roles B) his achieved statuses
C) his ascribed statuses D) status inconsistency
79) The primary difference between and ascribed status and an achieved status is: 79) ______
A) achieved statuses have roles attached to them but ascribed statuses do not.
B) ascribed statuses never change while achieved statuses do.
C) ascribed statues can also be a master status but achieved statuses cannot.
D) ascribed statuses are involuntary while achieved statuses are voluntary.
80) Bill proposes marriage to Jennifer and presents her with a diamond ring. The ring represents ________. 80) ______
A) an ascribed status B) a master status
C) a status symbol D) symbolic interaction
81) Male, female, race or age would be considered a[n] ________. 81) ______
A) rejected status B) inherited status
C) achieved master status D) ascribed master status
82) Madeleine's position as president of the local university over shadows her work as a wife, mother, and volunteer for the Salvation Army. In view of this, university president is Madeleine's ________. 82) ______
A) status inconsistency B) master status
C) social role D) ascribed status
83) Billy, a very bright youngster, is 14 years old and is a sophomore in college. This is an example of ________. 83) ______
A) status incongruity B) status inconsistency
C) status integration D) ascribed status
84) A[n] ________ consists of people who regularly interact with one another and, usually, share similar values, norms, and expectations. 84) ______
A) neighborhood B) aggregate
C) group D) social institution
85) Which statement is least true of social institutions? 85) ______
A) As society becomes more industrialized, social institutions become less formal.
B) Family, religion, and politics are examples of social institutions.
C) Social institutions shape our behavior.
D) Social institutions are the means that each society develops to meet its basic needs.
86) The Amish can be characterized as a[n] ________ society. 86) ______
A) individualistic B) organic
C) gemeinschaft D) gesellschaft
87) Which of the following is least representative of activity that would take place in a bioeconomic society? 87) ______
A) emphasis on the prevention of disease with less need for treatment
B) developing crops that provide better nutrition as well as antibiotics or contraceptives
C) the mass production of industrial goods and conspicuous consumption
D) the cloning of plants, animals, and possibly humans
88) Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs radiating out to about four feet. Hilda is trying to establish a "distance zone" that Hall would call Hilda's ________. 88) ______
A) social distance B) personal distance
C) public distance D) intimate distance
89) After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, Edward Hall concluded that the amount of space people prefer: 89) ______
A) varies from one culture to another.
B) is a 15-inch circle.
C) is remarkably similar across cultures.
D) does not vary among different cultures.
90) The study of social space is primarily the focus of sociologists who view society from the ________ level of analysis. 90) ______
A) functionalist B) conflict
C) macrosociological D) microsociological
91) According to Erving Goffman,when you close your bedroom door to achieve some privacy you are engaging in ________. 91) ______
A) role acting B) front stage behavior
C) back stage behavior D) role ambiguity
92) Alice is getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She has picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the beauty shop. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicate to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. According to Goffman, Alice would be engaged in ________. 92) ______
A) impression management B) face-saving behavior
C) impression control D) role management
93) In studied nonobservance , when an embarrassing or inappropriate act occurs: 93) ______
A) the party responsible for the act excuses himself or herself and business continues.
B) the offended party excuses the other party and business continues.
C) both parties ignore the act and business continues.
D) both parties discuss the act and decide if they should continue business.
94) Linda decides to visit her friends John and Mary. As she knocks on the door, she hears her friends quarreling. But when they open the door, John and Mary are smiling. Linda acts as though she has not heard the quarrel. This is an example of ________. 94) ______
A) redefining the situation B) face-saving behavior
C) teamwork D) impression management
95) When we ask someone a question, such as "How are things going?" and we either already know the answer or don't actually care what the answer is, we are practicing ________. 95) ______
A) the Thomas Theorem B) dramaturgical analysis
C) ethnomethodology D) definition of the situation
96) Sociologically, all New York Yankee fans around the world would be called a/an ________. 96) ______
A) category B) aggregate
C) clique D) social group
97) Sarah works for the American Hair and Felt Corporation. This group is one of the ________ groups to which Sarah belongs. 97) ______
A) out- B) reference C) secondary D) primary
98) Patrick has been a member of the Democratic Party since he registered to vote over 40 years ago. He eventually became a part of the local party leadership and is now the county party chairman. Patrick's experience in the Democratic Party demonstrates that: 98) ______
A) if secondary groups don't become more intimate they disappear.
B) secondary groups tend to break down into primary groups.
C) secondary groups are less satisfying than primary groups.
D) membership in primary groups requires persistent hard work.
99) Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________. 99) ______
A) out-groups B) reference groups
C) secondary groups D) social networks
100) Because of our sense of belonging and loyalty to our in-groups, we often tend to judge our own group's traits as virtues, but see the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________. 100) ______
A) subcultural relativity B) objectivity
C) lack of judgment D) a double standard
101) Upon graduating from a small midwestern high school, Joe enrolls in a large, west coast university. He observes that his classmates use different slang terms and wear clothing that is quite different from that worn in his old high school. Joe begins to adopt the behavior patterns of his new college peers who are now his ________. 101) ______
A) primary group B) out-group
C) reference group D) secondary group
102) Jane, Mark, Courtney, and Kelly are enrolled in the 8:00 a.m. sociology course at their college. After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in the class and worked together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a trip together. These four students would be considered members of a ________. 102) ______
A) secondary group B) reference group
C) clique D) out-group
103) Milgram's experiment involving the "small world phenomenon" discovered that: 103) ______
A) small groups are powerful influences on career choices.
B) people have a deep need to be accepted by their peers.
C) cliques are a basic aspect of society.
D) society is unconsciously linked together by mutual acquaintances.
104) When Judith Kleinfeld replicated Milgram's experiment on small group phenomenon, she discovered: 104) ______
A) Milgram's experiment was not representative of average people.
B) that chain letters are an effective method of communicating new ideas.
C) Milgram staged the experiment and it never happened.
D) we are separated by fewer chains than Milgram discovered.
105) Janet communicates periodically with people on the Internet who are interested in sociology. According to your author, Janet belongs to a new type of group called a[n] ________. 105) ______
A) interaction group B) communication community
C) computer group D) electronic community
106) Cathy Jean works in a large organization and has begun to feel more like an object at work, and that no one in the organization cares about her as a person. This is an example of ________. 106) ______
A) a lack of communication B) bureaucratic anomie
C) bureaucratic displacement D) bureaucratic alienation
107) Of the following characteristics, which one least applies to bureaucracies? 107) ______
A) written rules
B) written communications and records
C) a specialized division of labor
D) personal attention and individualism
108) Becky has placed pictures of her two children, the family dog, and her summer vacation on the walls of her work cubicle. By doing so, she is trying to: 108) ______
A) resist alienation.
B) impress management she is family oriented.
C) explore the hidden curriculum of the corporate culture.
D) conform to the dominant value system.
109) One would most likely find bureaucratic alienation to be an issue in which of the following communities? 109) ______
A) the Gemeinschaft society of Tonnies
B) the mechanical society of Durkheim
C) the Chrysler corporation
D) an Amish community
110) According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, the "hidden values" of an organization operate: 110) ______
A) a self-fulfilling prophecy that affects people's corporate careers.
B) to assist women and minorities in gaining promotions.
C) as an encouragement to be productive and increase corporate morale.
D) to help the organization to be successful.
111) An objective analysis of American and Japanese corporations demonstrates that: 111) ______
A) Japanese and American corporate policies are growing more similar than different.
B) American corporations are more authoritarian but more productive.
C) American corporations are copying Japanese policies.
D) the Japanese corporation is superior to the American corporation.
112) With respect to group size, Georg Simmel noted that: 112) ______
A) as groups grow smaller, they become less stable.
B) as groups grow larger, they become less stable.
C) as groups grow larger, they become more intimate.
D) as groups grow smaller there is a greater confusion of roles.
113) Every night at 9:00 p.m. Harold sits down at his computer to communicate with the people who are members of his newsgroup, the Law List. Recently, Harold and his wife had a baby girl. That night he sent a picture of his newborn infant over the Internet to the people in his newsgroup. The next day he received electronic greeting cards from the others in the group. Harold would be considered a member of a[n] ________. 113) ______
A) electronic community B) cybermetric association
C) electronic secondary group D) computer hacking group
114) Joanne is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her Introductory Sociology class. Whenever they meet, Joanne finds she is always trying to keep the group focused on putting the questionnaire together. Joanne would be considered the ________ leader of the group. 114) ______
A) laissez-faire B) expressive
C) instrumental D) authoritarian
115) As the instrumental leader of a group, your responsibility would be to: 115) ______
A) convince others of the practicality of your ideas.
B) gain a consensus on everything.
C) maintain the harmony in the group.
D) keep the group moving toward its goals.
116) During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy brokered options on how to address the problem with selected national leaders. After this group reached a consensus, the President made the final decision for a naval quarantine of Cuba. This scenario is an example of ________ leadership. 116) ______
A) democratic B) authoritarian
C) laissez-faire D) expressive
117) Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that: 117) ______
A) Americans are highly individualistic and reluctant to conform to group pressure.
B) because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
C) younger people are more susceptible to group pressure than older adults.
D) women are more susceptible to group pressure than men.
118) Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that: 118) ______
A) only emotionally disturbed persons enjoy inflicting pain on others.
B) electric shock treatments improve students' abilities to learn.
C) some people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
D) most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority.